Oral Presentations

"A Rose (and Non-rose) by any other name?" K. Houle

Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada

Statement of aims: In this brief presentation, I examine some common linguistic habits of naming the human and the non-human, and especially how we tend to name the relationships among and between these, for instance the terms: higher and lower animals. In recent decades, animal welfare practitioners and theorists have taken care to coin and use terms which are respectful of the differences between and among the kingdom Animalia, and, which do not reproduce anthropocentric habits of seeing and naming ourselves at the centre of creation, or, above all other parts of the living world. One such example is the phrase companion animal, intended to honor what are typically called pets with the capacity to offer to humankind genuine companionship, something typically reserved for our fellow humans. From the perspective of animal welfare, another progressive and promising phrase is the pairing human and non-human animal. I myself prefer, and use this designation. Such a phrase seems at first glance to be progressive in that it: a) prevents us humans from disavowing our animality and; b) conceptually links the human to the entire animal kingdom, not just selected animals such as mammals or the kinds of animals taken on as companions. Yet, as I will argue, I have come to think that such a phrase will not do, either. I will, in this presentation, make the case not only that we ought to abandon such terms as higher and lower animal, but that we ought not to take up the phrase: non-human animal. I have come to suspect that such a phrase is insidious, and its use can undermine the conditions of the very attitude of respect and acknowledgement of moral considerability which animal welfarists intend, genuinely, toward other beings than human beings. I will make this case using a semiotic analysis ("The science of communication studied through the interpretation of signs and symbols as they operate in various fields, esp. language (see SEMIOTIC n. for parallel form). Cf. SEMIOLOGY." O.E.D.). I will draw parallels with similar common and yet insidious linguistic constructions – whites and non-whites; Western and Non-Western philosophy, the developing world ("Third World") and the developed world ("First World") – to illustrate to the audience the basic conceptual pattern, and, then what I think is the deeply problematic nature of these kinds of habits of speech, in whichever politically context they occur.

Early Life

An investigation of the behavior of dairy calves with high, average and low post-weaning weight gain
A. Stanton (1), KE. Leslie (1), D. Kelton (1), RT. Dingwell (1), TM. Widowski, (2) S. LeBlanc (1), ST. Millman (3)

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada (1), Department of Animal & Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, On, Canada (2), Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine/Biomedical Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA (3)

Behavioural indicators of stress and disease in farm animals are gaining importance in research and industry as an aid in diagnosis and convalescence. Our objective was to investigate behavioural trait differences of calves, based on success at adapting to post-weaning stress, as measured by weight gain in the first 7 days post-weaning. Combined with physiological parameters this information may be used at the farm level to identify animals that are experiencing severe weaning stress and help trigger management changes to improve calf welfare. Seventy-four Holstein calves were housed in groups of 4-6 and were 38-79 days old at weaning. Weaning consisted of change from milk to a component feeding of hay and calf starter, and change from individual pens to group housing in a naturally ventilated barn. IceTags ® biotelemetry devices were affixed to each calf’s hindleg and recorded the number of steps taken per day from two days prior to weaning until 14 days post-weaning. Calves were weighed weekly and were divided into three categories for analysis based on weight gain in the first week. Low gaining calves (n=20) ranged from a loss of -4.5 kg to an increase in body weight of +2 kg/week. Average calves (n=32) gained 2.5 to 6 kg/week. High gaining calves (n=19) gained 6.5 to 10.5 kg/week. Preliminary results were analyzed using univariable analysis. On Day -2, Low calves were less active (mean steps +/- S.E. 927.8 +/- 102.7, p=0.053) than Average (1252.7 +/- 78.5) and High calves (1253.2 +/- 62.9). All calves displayed a sharp increase in total steps on Day 1 relative to Day-2 (1229.6 +/- 50.06 versus 3377.7 +/- 243.86, respectively). However, Low gaining calves tended to have a greater increase than High calves (mean change in steps +/- S.E.: Low, 1994 +/- 566 and High 1145 +/- 345, p=0.06). Conversely, Low calves were less active than Average on days 4-8, and less active than High on days 4-6 after weaning. Average and High calves did not differ. These results indicate that calves that go on to have lower weight gains following weaning are less active than higher gaining calves prior to weaning. However, it appears that these calves become more active in the immediate post-weaning period, possibly due to anxious behavior, such as pacing and general restlessness.

Weaning bites! Dental development and the onset of feeding behaviour in domestic swine (Sus Scrofa)
A.L. Tucker, and T. M. Widowski

Department of Animal & Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph ON, Canada.

Piglets are typically weaned around 18 days in Canada. These early-weaned piglets often experience difficulty with solid feed intake at weaning. Failure to consume sufficiently during this critical period can exacerbate other stressors, leading to weight loss and health problems. Surprisingly, one area of research that has not been investigated until now is the role of dental development. Studies on miniature breeds of swine show that mastication of solid feed coincides with the eruption of molars. Our previous survey of 211 piglets indicated only 20% of piglets had fully erupted molars even at 28 days of age. The purpose of this study was to determine whether molar eruption is associated with the onset of feeding in piglets 0-4 weeks old. It was predicted that the onset of feeding would commence with the initial eruption of molars, as well as with their occlusion. At age 5 days, 176 nursing piglets (16 litters) were offered Cr2O marked feed. Twice weekly, fecal swabs (indicating feed ingestion) and molar eruption were recorded. Weight was recorded weekly. Eruption was based on the proportion of tooth crown emerging through the gingiva while time at the feeder was based on 6 hours of continuous video observations each day after dental exams. Repeated measures ANOVAs (SAS, Proc Mixed) were employed to test the effects of molar development, gender, and growth on both the duration of time at the feeder and feed ingestion.

Preliminary statistics (80 piglets from 8 litters) indicate the piglets having more than 1/3 of their mandibular molar4 erupted spent more time at the feeder overall (p=0.018) and were more likely to consume feed on day 23 (p=0.036). Piglets with ½ or more of their maxillary molar3 erupted also spent more time at the feeder (p=0.049). Occlusion of both these molars increased time at the feeder overall (p=0.038) and increased consumption on days 20 & 23 (p=0.049, p=0.043). These findings indicate dental development influences feed oriented behaviour and feed intake in young swine. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between tooth eruption, feeding behaviour and feed consumption, demonstrating the importance of including this aspect of development in understanding the welfare consequences of early weaning.

The Daily Grind

Use of dietary thyroxin as an alternate moulting procedure in turkey breeder hens
V.A.L. Gulde and G.Y. Bédécarrats.

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph.

In the poultry industry, forced moulting is achieved by reducing photoperiod and withdrawing feed and water for several days. Although this practice is discouraged due to serious health and welfare concerns, it remains the most effective method and alternative strategies need to be established. During initiation of a natural moult, plasma levels of thyroxin (T4) increase significantly. Furthermore, dietary T4 was shown to induce moult in caged chickens. This study was performed to elucidate whether supplemental T4 can induce moult in turkey breeder hens without feed withdrawal/avoidance. Spent hens were randomly divided into 4 groups composed of 5 floor pens (replicates) each (5 hens per pen). While a control group was maintained under a 14 h photoperiod and fed a breeders’ diet throughout, hens from the 3 other groups were supplemented with 40ppm T4 for 10 days. Of the 3 treatment groups, 1 was maintained under a 14 h light schedule and fed breeders’ diet while the 2 others were subjected to a drop in photoperiod to 6 h during or after supplementation, and were then fed a maintenance diet. Egg production, feed intake, body weight, moult and plasma levels of T4 were measured. All treated hens ceased laying within 20 days, however, several individuals spontaneously returned to lay when left on 14h light, suggesting incomplete involution of the reproductive tract. T4 supplementation significantly reduced feed consumption (p<0.001) and induced significant rapid body weight loss (p<0.001). However, all hens returned to their initial body weight by experiment’s end. Most treated hens initiated moult within 8 days of supplementation and all completed moult by d37. Plasma T4 levels in treated hens increased significantly by day 3 of supplementation (p<0.05) and remained significantly higher than in controls until day 9 (P<0.01). Levels returned to initial values by day 35. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 40 ppm T4 was successful in inducing moult in spent turkey breeder hens. However, a drop in photoperiod seems necessary to completely reset the reproductive system.

Assessment of risk factors for overweight body condition and hyperglycemia in long-term group-housed cynomolgus macaques
S.A. Bauer (1), J. Fournier (3), K.E. Leslie1, D.L. Pearl (1), P.V. Turner (2)

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (1), Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1(2), Public Health Agency of Canada, Sir Frederick Banting Building, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9 (3)

Excessive weight gain has been reported in mature cynomolgus macaques living in captive colonies. As in humans, this can lead to the development of hyperglycemia and further progress to diabetes mellitus. Hyperglycemic animals require intervention, and may be separated from conspecifics to monitor glucose levels, body weight and food intake. Because of related health problems, these animals rarely return to their family troop. This is not ideal for social animals and their psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for naturally occurring obesity in long-term housed macaques, with the ultimate aim of enhancing colony health and well-being. Longitudinal analysis of health records from 114 captive-bred, female cynomolgus macaques ranging in age from 6 – 23 years was used to identify risk factors for development of overweight body condition and hyperglycemia. During annual physical evaluation, measurements including bodyweight, skinfold thickness and abdominal circumference were recorded for each animal. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated for each animal, based on body weight x crown-rump length. In other species, a BMI > 3.95 is associated with obesity. Serum chemistry parameters, including glucose and fructosamine, were also evaluated. Mean fructosamine levels were significantly elevated in animals with BMIs > 3.95. These animals also had significantly greater abdominal circumferences and body weights compared to macaques with BMIs < 3.95. Interestingly, macaque age and parity were not correlated with either increased or decreased BMI, or with serum fructosamine levels. These results suggest that regular assessment of body condition using a calculated BMI may be more predictive of fructosamine levels from overweight body condition than bodyweights alone. Therefore, BMI may be an important tool to track the health of cynomolgus macaques in colony settings.

Using animals while attending to their welfare: Why it misses the moral mark
J. Harvey

Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1

The paper is on ethics and companion animals, specifically dogs and cats. I begin with a brief reference to the main tradition in western thinking about animals where they are seen as having no intrinsic value and where their role in the natural order of things is seen as being of use to humans. The sense of entitlement in making use of animals for human benefit remains largely unshaken today and this presumption remains deeply embedded in institutional practice and in the mechanisms of the capitalist market place.

In recent decades institutions and businesses and also the general public have begun to reflect more on the suffering and deprivations of animals used for human benefit and there has arisen a growing concern for their "welfare", without however dislodging the strong sense of entitlement in making use of them. Increasingly familiar, then, is the position I call "utilization with welfare safeguards", i.e., the assumption that we are morally entitled to make use of them for our non-trivial benefit providing we try to ensure their "welfare". Given the length limit of the paper, I will critique this position with respect to the use of dogs and cats and argue that we should adopt a different moral priority if we are to respect their developed telos (or nature). That priority points to some serious moral implications for currently entrenched institutional and business practices.

Mating and Motherhood

Keynote Lecture - Notoriously difficult to breed in captivity: Behavioral research to the rescue of the giant panda
R. Swaisgood

Associate Director of the Center for Conservation and Research for Endangered Species, San Diego Zoo

Today’s headlines call attention to the dramatic success in panda conservation breeding, with images of piles of baby pandas testifying to the success. But it hasn’t always been that way; a decade ago the popular and scientific press had all but given up on panda breeding programs. I will describe a scientific program underlying many of these successes. Working closely with our friends and colleagues at the Wolong Breeding Center, we embarked on a series of behavioral studies, with the primary goal of getting pandas to do what is supposed to come naturally. I describe this program’s principal efforts. One of our first goals was to understand reproductive behavior with a particular interest in using experiments to tease out the meaning of scent signals and the role they play in reproduction. Because reproductive management cannot be limited to the brief mating period, we also developed an enrichment program to address welfare, both for its own sake and for its potential role in reproduction. To do this we tested various enrichment strategies and their effects on motivation and welfare. These and other results from our scientific studies were applied to management of the captive population at Wolong and elsewhere, contributing significantly to the explosion in the panda population witnessed in recent years.

The effect of previous experience with females on broiler breeder male sexual and aggressive behaviour
C.M. Doherty , I.J.H. Duncan

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1

It has been shown that male broiler breeder (BB) domestic fowl do not show normal courtship behaviour. We examined the development of courtship and aggressive behaviour in BB males by comparing sexual and aggressive behaviour at two different ages and levels of sexual experience to determine if they are capable of learning appropriate courtship behaviour. It was expected that BB males would be more aggressive than control males of another breed and that the frequency of sexual and aggressive behaviour would be unchanged with experience. Thirty males of three strains of domestic fowl were used: two BB strains (Ross 344 and Hubbard M77) and one heritage breed (Columbian Plymouth Rock (CR)) as the control. All were reared in single-sex groups according to breeder guidelines. The males were observed individually at 24 weeks of age with three sexually naïve hens (Ross 308). Half of these males were then housed with three hens for five weeks. After five weeks, all females were removed and the males were again observed individually with three sexually inexperienced hens. Initially, Hubbard males were avoided by females, attempted to mount and pecked unreceptive females more often than CR (P<0.05) and Ross males tended to do the same (P<0.1). Hubbard males were approached less often by females (P<0.05), and both strains of BB male performed tidbitting and cornering less frequently than the CR (P<0.05). After five weeks, all sexually experienced males waltzed and wing-flapped more often than the inexperienced males (P<0.05) and were also avoided less often by females and pecked at females less often (P<0.05). There was a significant strain effect with BB males pecking and attempting to mount unreceptive females more than the CR (P<0.05). There was a trend for the BB males to force copulation and be avoided by females more frequently than the CR (P<0.1). These results indicate that BB males behave more aggressively toward females than CR when first introduced to females. Their behaviour improved with five weeks of sexual experience; the frequency of tidbitting and cornering by BB males increased P<0.05), however, they were still significantly more aggressive than the CR. This demonstrates that BB males are capable of learning how to behave more appropriately towards females but, they are still abnormally aggressive.

Is pacing in carnivores a sign of brain dysfunction? Preliminary data from a longterm project.
M. Diez-Leon & G. Mason

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1

At the population level, stereotypic behaviours are typical of environments that cause stress. However, at the individual level, they are not straightforward welfare indices. For example, wild animals brought into captivity stereotype less than captive-born animals, despite probably having poorer welfare. One possible explanation comes from research suggesting a link between this behaviour and dysfunction in brain centers that process motor behaviour. Our aim is to test this hypothesis in a novel model, the American mink (Mustela vison). We have raised 64 sibling pairs of mink in enriched and non-enriched environments, to investigate whether environments that induce stereotypic behaviour do so by altering the brain, and whether these changes impair the overall fitness of the animal. To first assess whether these environments induced stable changes, we temporarily moved all mink to standard fur farm cages where they were scanned for 8 days. Here, enriched-raised mink stereotyped significantly less than non-enriched-raised mink (F1,97=4.57; p<0.05). Half the animals (one mink per pair) were then returned to their home cages, while the remaining half were left in place to be pelted as part of the farm’s annual cycle. Three weeks later, just before pelting commenced, the behaviour of both sets of mink was re-assessed. After 3-4 weeks in standard farm cages, enriched-reared females were still less stereotypic than non-enriched-reared (F1,30=9,16; p<0.05) suggesting lasting benefits, although this effect was no longer seen in males (F1,30=0.53; p=0.474). The differentially-reared mink returned to their home cages showed a strong effect of housing condition (F1,31=7.38; p<0.05 for females; F1,31=178,18; p<0.001 for males). We have just begun to test how these changes affect overall fitness. In March, we investigated individual attractiveness in mate-choice tests (data to be presented); and in May/June we will build on this by looking at maternal competence. Finally, we will investigate whether housing conditions and stereotypic behaviours predict changes in brain morphology and function. Overall, we hope this project will refine the use of stereotypic behaviour in welfare assessment, and also highlight the benefits of enriched housing conditions.

Inactivity as an indicator of welfare state and reproductive performance in mink
R. Meagher, G. Mason

Department of Animal & Poultry Science, University of Guelph

In many species, there are individual differences in response to being housed in barren environments: some animals become very stereotypic, while others become extremely inactive. Such inactivity could reflect either negative welfare states such as depression-like ‘apathy’ or chronic fear, or positive welfare states such as calmness. To determine whether inactivity potentially reflects poor welfare in mink, we examined the relationship between inactivity and reproductive performance in 350 individually-housed females (colour types: Black, Demi and Pastel) on a commercial fur farm. Behavioural phenotypes were determined via scanning for four days before mating commenced. Although most females were stereotypic, some spent up to 90% of the day inactive. Our reproductive measures were quality of nest-building (an aspect of maternal care), scored by observers around the time of parturition; litter size at birth; and infant mortality before weaning. The relationships between these measures and inactivity were analysed using general linear models. Inactivity in the nestbox predicted small litter sizes at birth (F1,330=4.40, P=0.037), and among multiparous females, spending a high proportion of the day inactive in the nestbox also predicted higher kit mortality between birth and weaning (F1,202=4.04, P=0.046). Some signs of a link between inactivity and poor nest quality were also found, although they were not consistent over time. Stereotypic behaviour was significantly inversely correlated with inactivity, but was a less consistent predictor of reproductive performance. We are currently replicating this study on another 200 females; exploring the roles of depression-like states, fear, and/or excess body fat in our findings; and investigating whether different forms of inactivity (e.g. within the nest-box versus out in the open cage) have different reproductive correlates. In addition to the practical significance of allowing farmers to identify mink that are likely to breed poorly, extreme inactivity may have welfare implications if poor reproduction reflects fear or an analogue of depression.

The End of the Line

Repeatability within and agreement between temperament tests in market hogs in group housing
J. Brown (1), C. Dewey (2), C.F.M. De Lange (1), I.B. Mandell (1), P.P. Purslow (3), A.B. Robinson (1), J. Squires (1), T. Widowski (1)

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, (1), Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (2), Department of Food Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (3)

Despite similarities in genetics and experience, pigs show large variation in stress responses during pre-market handling. If this variation is due to differences in behavioural tendencies, then on-farm assessment of responses to humans or novel situations may be predictive of the stress response at marketing. This study looked at behavioural testing of market hogs in group housing, with the objective of validating tests which could be applied in commercial settings.Behavioural responses of pigs to three temperament tests were studied using 118 market hogs at approximately 6 months. Pigs were housed in 8 pens with 7-8 pigs per pen, in two replicate trails. Tests included a human approach test (HAT), novel object test (NOT) and open door test (ODT), and were performed in the home pen on three separate days. Animals were scored on their latency to contact the human or object, or to leave the pen. On each day, the HAT was performed twice by different observers. Repeatability within test was evaluated using a repeated measures mixed model, and agreement between observers and between different tests was evaluated by GLM in SAS. Variation between days in the latency to perform the test was significant for all three tests (p<0.05) with pigs showing reduced latencies over time. Variation between pigs was highly significant in the HAT and ODT (p<0.001) but not in the NOT (p=0.182). However, no significant day by pig interactions were found, indicating consistency within pig over the three days. Agreement between the two HAT observers, and between HAT and ODT measures, was significant (p<0.001). Results indicate that these tests have poor test-retest repeatability based on latencies. However, the consistency within individuals and level of agreement between observers and tests suggest that the methods describe behavioural tendencies, and may be useful for predicting responses to handling at marketing. Such tests could be used in selection of calmer animals, and in the evaluation of strategies for reducing stress at handling.

Core body temperatures of market swine transported to slaughter in summer
E. Tamminga (1), R. Bergeron (2), J. Correa (3), T. Crowe (4), C. Dewey (5) , L. Faucitano (6), H. Gonyou (7), N. Lewis (8), S. Torrey (6), T. Widowski (1)

Department Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (1), Alfred Campus, University of Guelph, Alfred, Ontario, Canada (2), Laval University, Quebec, Canada (3), Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering , University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (4), Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (5), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Dairy and Swine and Development Research Centre, Lennoxville, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada (6), Prairie Swine Centre, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (7), Department Animal and Poultry Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (8)

Heat stress is one of the major causes of mortality and fatigue during transport of market pigs. Therefore, evaluating thermal responses to environmental conditions is important for identifying problem areas and improving the welfare of pigs during commercial transport. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of truck design and stage of the transport process on core body temperature (CBT) of pigs during transport to a commercial abattoir.Over six weekly trials (June-July 2007), Thermocron iButton temperature data loggers (Dallas Semiconductor, TX, USA) were orally administered to 252 (42/trial) pigs. Pigs were randomly assigned to one of 14 compartments in either a three-deck pot-belly trailer with interrnal ramps (PB) or a double-decked hydraulic trailer without ramps (DD). From gross dissection of gastrointestinal tracts at slaughter, 196 data loggers were recovered with usable data. Data were summarized for four time periods during the transport process: Pre-loading (ca. 4 hours), Stationary (ca. 0-1 hour), In-transit (ca. 2 hours), and In-Lairage (ca. 2 hours). Repeated mixed model analyses with a Bonferroni adjustment in SAS indicated no overall effects of trailer style or compartment within trailer (P>0.10) on mean CBT, but there were significant differences due to period (P<0.001), period by trailer (P<0.01) and compartment by period within trailer interactions (P<0.02). When Stationary, PB pigs had a higher mean CBT than those on the DD (40.62 ±0.05°C, 40.15±0.07°C respectively, P<0.001). However, pigs on the PB truck were always loaded first and therefore had a longer period of waiting before transit. Within the PB, CBT was higher when Stationary compared to all other periods (Pre-loading: 40.11±0.07°C; In-transit: 40.18±0.07°C; In-Lairage: 39.82 ±0.06°C; P<0.01). When Stationary, CBT was significantly higher in two of the top-deck compartments of the PB than for all other compartments in that trailer (P<0.02). The results of this study indicate that pigs loaded into the top deck compartments of the PB are at a greater risk for heat stress than pigs in other areas of either truck. This could be due to the exertion required to climb to this compartment or due to higher heat load in these compartments.

The Effect of Transportation Dynamics on Cattle Welfare and Beef Quality
L. Warren (1), I. Mandell (2), T.M. Widowski (2) and K. Bateman (1)

Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (1); Department Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (2)

This is a benchmark study to investigate slaughter cattle transportation conditions in Canada in order to provide scientifically based research to validate or suggest revisions to the current legislation. Data was collected 2 or 3 times weekly over a period of 52 weeks at a large federally inspected plant in Ontario. For the first 38 weeks data was collected twice per week, on two of Monday, Wednesday or Friday. The visits also varied by time (5:30 AM-9:30 AM or 9:30 AM-1:30 PM), to ensure an accurate representation of the entire population (long and short haul cattle) was sampled. For the last 14 weeks of the study a night data collection period was added (6:00 PM-11:00 PM) in order to collect information and maintain the representative nature of the data from long haul truckers who began bringing in several loads at night. Data collected included: length of time in transit; temperature variation; conditions during transport; amount and type of bedding; cattle weight; stocking density; number of dark cutters; cattle unloading speed; cattle handling score; number of years trucking cattle; livestock trucking training course; ventilation; number lame, dead, needing assistance, non-ambulatory, panting, and sweating. Approximately 1300 observations (truck loads) and data on 52 000 head of cattle are included in the analysis. Preliminary analysis on stocking densities; percentage of dark cutters; trucker handling scores; percentage of cattle with welfare issues (i.e. lame, downers); average transit times; average number of driver experience years; and percentage of drivers that have taken a livestock trucking training course will be presented. The findings of this study will provide valuable insight into the current state of the cattle transportation industry. Given the increased consumer demand for a high degree of animal welfare this type of research is needed for the future sustainability of the beef industry.

The Power of Testimony: The speaking animal’s plea for understanding in a selection of eighteenth-century British literary texts.
A. Milne

School of English and Theatre Studies, University of Guelph

This paper focuses on some of the central questions for animal literary studies. These questions include whether and how humans can access animal subjectivity and communicate or represent that subjectivity, whether anthropomorphizing animals constitutes a violation of animal rights and what kinds of rights discourses are implicit to and played-out in the metaphor. I focus on two examples from eighteenth-century literary texts with a particular interest in how the contemporary culture reflected the philosophical and political reframing of animal issues around Jeremy Bentham’s famous utilitarian rejection of the Cartesian beast-machine. Bentham’s turn from the questions "Can they reason?" and "Can they talk?" to the question, "Can they suffer?" resulted in a rush in Britain to entrench the already prevalent anti-cruelty sentiments in science, moral doctrine and in law. Literature played its part in promoting a more central consideration of the status of the animal. I’m particularly interested in looking at literary texts in which the speaker of the poem or the protagonist of a narrative is conceptualized as an animal voice. I look at two works in which mice speak – one from a trap set by a well-known scientist who plans to use the mouse in his work ("The Mouse’s Petition, Found in the Trap where he had been Confined all Night" by Anna Laetitia Barbauld) and the other who recounts his "life and perambulations" to a human listener (The Life and Perambulations of a Mouse by Dorothy Kilner As I try to illustrate in my examples from these texts, some of the reluctance and resistance to acknowledgements of animal subjectivity come from ways in which humans utilize literary figures such as the anthropomorphized animal and the metaphor to duplicitously undermine the very rights they appear to be promoting and enacting. I suggest ways that these literary tropes spillover, impact upon, and implicate several contemporary animal welfare positions and wonder whether twenty-first century animal welfare ethics and policies are similarly impacted upon by language.

Poster Presentations

An Investigation of Meloxicam for Relief of Pain Following Dehorning of Dairy Calves
A. Heinrich (1), T.F. Duffield, (1), K.D. Lissemore, (1), E.J. Squires, (2)., S.T. Millman, (1,3)

1Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, ON, Canada
2Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada
3Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames IA, USA

The objectives of this study were to investigate the duration of pain following dehorning, and to assess the efficacy of meloxicam (Metacam©, Boehringer Ingelheim), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, for relieving that pain. Sixty Holstein heifer calves ranging in age from 6-12 weeks were blocked by age and randomly assigned to meloxicam or placebo treatments at a dosage rate of 0.5mg/kg I.M. All calves received a lidocaine cornual nerve block and were dehorned by heat cauterization. A sham dehorning treatment was performed 24 hours before dehorning to establish baseline values for all pain-related variables and to account for individual variability. Three categories of pain assessment tools were used: physiological (serum cortisol, heart rate and respiratory rate over 24 hours), mechanical (pain sensitivity involving a withdrawal response to pressure algometry at 4 hours post-dehorning) and behavioural (pain-related behaviours, total activity and feed intake for 48 hours following dehorning). Physiology and algometer data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS. Behaviour data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Heart rates were higher than baseline values for both groups immediately following dehorning (P<0.004), but meloxicam-treated calves had lower heart (P<0.04) and respiratory rates (P<0.001) than placebo calves during the full 24 hours following dehorning. Meloxicam-treated calves displayed significantly lower cortisol levels during the first six hours after dehorning (P<0.05). Both groups displayed increased pain sensitivity following dehorning, but this sensitivity was significantly less in the meloxicam-treated calves (P=0.004). Differences in pain-related behaviours were evident 44 hours post-dehorning when the experiment concluded, suggesting a prolonged pain response. Meloxicam calves displayed significantly less ear flicking (44h, P= 0.003), head shaking (6h, P= 0.03), head rubbing (30h, P= 0.045) and tail flicking (20h, P= 0.02) than placebo calves. Meloxicam calves rested more during the first five hours following dehorning (P=0.02) and consumed more feed following dehorning (P=0.07) than placebo calves. In conclusion, pain response to dehorning lasts for at least 44 hours, and meloxicam is an effective therapy to reduce dehorning pain, as measured by physiological, mechanical and behavioural responses.

Meloxicam as Supportive Therapy for Neonatal Calf Diarrhea Complex
C.G. Todd, (1), S.T. Millman, (1,2), D.R. McKnight, (3), T.F. Duffield, (1), K.E. Leslie, (1)

Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada (1), Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA (2), Kemptville Campus, University of Guelph, Kemptville, ON, Canada (3)

Disease is recognized as an important cause of animal suffering. Thus, it was hypothesized that neonatal calf diarrhea complex is associated with negative affective experiences, such as pain and malaise. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy and its role in alleviating pain and promoting recovery of neonatal calves with diarrhea has not been studied. The aim of this research was to examine the efficacy of meloxicam (Metacam® 20mg/mL solution) as supportive therapy for calves with diarrhea, as determined by measures of calf performance, behaviour and health. For this double-blind controlled trial, 62 Holstein bull calves were purchased at birth. At the naturally-occurring onset of diarrhea, calves were enrolled in the study, and randomly assigned to receive a single subcutaneous injection of meloxicam (0.5 mg/kg BW) or an equal volume of placebo. Daily milk, water and starter ration intakes, as well as weekly body weight measurements were determined for each calf. Following the onset of diarrhea, calf feeding behaviour and general activity were monitored. Additionally, calf lying and standing postures were evaluated as indictors of comfort. During this trial, 56 calves presented with diarrhea and were treated with meloxicam (n=28) or placebo (n=28). Meloxicam-treated calves were more likely to consume their entire milk meal (p<0.05), required less assistance during milk feedings (p<0.05), began consuming starter ration significantly earlier (p<0.05) and at a faster rate (p<0.05) than placebo calves. Meloxicam calves rested more for the first few days after onset of diarrhea and then became considerably more active (p<0.05). The calves did not differ for the occurrence of abnormal lying postures (p>0.05) or back arch (p>0.05). However, placebo calves were more frequently observed with raised (p<0.05) or tucked (p<0.05) tail positions. These results provide evidence of improved calf well-being and indicate that meloxicam is an effective supportive therapy for calves with diarrhea.

What do non-stereotypic animals do in poor environments? A meta-analytic approach
A. Laroye (1), G. Mason (2)

Ecophysiologie et Ethologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Vie, Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France (1) Department of Animal Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont. N1G 2W1, Canada (2)

Stereotypic behaviour is invariant, repetitive, without apparent function, and common among captive animals. Environments that cause or increase it are typically linked with greater signs of poor welfare. However, within such environements, one often finds some individuals with very high level of stereotypic behaviours, but others with little or none. Paradoxically, the individuals that spontaneously develop high levels of stereotypies often seem to fare better in these poor environments than identically treated non-stereotypic conspecifics (showing lower levels of endocrine stress, for example, or better breeding success). The aim of this study is to therefore to analyze what animals in poor conditions do if they are not stereotyping. Our principle hypothesis is that they are inactive, perhaps even ‘apathetic’ or depressed; but alternatives could be that they show more normal behaviours (e.g. escape attempts), or instead other forms of abnormal behaviour (e.g. coprophagy). We are investigating this via a meta-analysis of existing datasets. Because of the level of detail required, we are focussing on the work of all relevant former students and collaborators of Georgia Mason (c. 10, with data from c. 20 captive populations) so that information missing from theses/papers can be retrieved by questioning authors. If the ‘inactivity’ hypothesis is supported, this would suggest the importance of extreme inactivity as a welfare indicator, and the value of reducing it. Consequently we would then investigate how reduce inactivity in order to improve animal welfare. We know that environmental enrichment often significantly reduces stereotypic behaviour. Our hypothesis would be that environmental enrichments also reduce inactivity. In order to test this second hypothesis, we will review the results of published studies through an ISI Web of Knowledge search.

This study will show perhaps, the importance of inactivity for the study of animal welfare, and that this indicator should not be overlooked.

Characterizing the behavioural changes in young pigs infected with Salmonella.
J. Higginson (1), J.T. Gray (2), S.T. Millman (3); Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada (1),

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA, USA (2), Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA (3)

Animals exhibit behavioural changes during illness, including lethargy, anorexia, adipsia, and anhedonia, which are a part of a strategy to assist in convalescence. Since pigs and many other agricultural animals are housed in groups, the social implications of illness on sick animals and their penmates is a welfare concern in the industry. The objectives of this study were to determine if cleanliness, aggression, and exploratory behaviour would be altered by Salmonella infection in group-housed swine. Twelve groups of five Landrace/Yorkshire weaned pigs (n=60 pigs) were housed in separate biosecure rooms. As this study was done in conjunction with an ongoing study examining antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella, one animal was randomly selected from each group as the seeder animal and given 107-108 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium orally on Day 0. Observers were able to identify pigs by individual markings and were blind to treatment. Cleanliness scores and fresh lesion scores were recorded daily from Day -1 through to Day +6. Latency to approach a novel object was used as a measure of exploratory behaviour, and was performed using 4 different objects on Days -1, +1, +3 and +6 with order of presentation balanced between groups. Preliminary univariate analysis revealed that seeder pigs did not differ from penmates for cleanliness scores (mean + S.E. 1.54 ± 0.19 and 1.60 ± 0.09 for seeders and penmates respectively, p=0.79). Infected pigs also did not differ from their penmates for lesion scores (mean + S.E. was 0.25 ± 0.06 and 0.20 ± 0.04 for seeder and penmates respectively, p=0.54). Cleanliness scores for seeders and other penmates were significantly different, with seeder animals being significantly cleaner on Day +2 (1.03 ± 0.16 versus 1.54 ± 0.19, p<0.05). Approach to novel objects was significantly faster on subsequent days (p<0.05), however there was no significant difference between seeders and non-seeders for this behaviour. In conclusion, there was little evidence to support differences in behaviour of animals infected with Salmonella relative to their healthy penmates for cleanliness, lesions scores or exploratory motivation.

Habituation to Novel Stimuli: Do Stereotyping Mink Pay Attention?
S. Villegas (1), R. Meaghe (2), M. Diez (2) and G. Mason (2)

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph (1), Department of Animal Science, University of Guelph (2)

Captive animals sometimes persistently perform 'stereotypic behaviours' despite environmental changes aimed at interrupting or eliminating them. Anecdotally, it has been suggested that stereotypic behaviour may reduce the attention an animal pays to its environment, even leading to ideas that stereotypers ‘self-narcotize’. However, this hypothesis remains untested, and furthermore there are alternative possible explanations (e.g. stereotypers are too highly motivated to break off this behaviour). This study tested the ‘attention hypothesis’ by investigating how mink habituate to a novel visual stimulus. Novel stimuli demand attention as they may be signals of important contingent events. If there are none, orienting responses (visible interest or approach) decrease with repeated exposure as animals become habituated. With reduced attention, responses should be weaker, and habituation should take longer. Farmed mink were repeatedly exposed to the moving light from a laser pointer while performing stereotypic behaviour (n = 10) or normal activity (n = 16). Durations of orienting responses were recorded over consecutive trials. As in previous studies, stereotyping mink showed a weaker initial response to the stimulus compared with animals behaving normally (U = 20.00, p = 0.002). However, their rates of habituation were not significantly slower. In a counterbalanced probe trial, the stimulus was presented once more in either the same or opposite condition to that in which they were habituated. Again, mink showed weaker responses while stereotyping compared with when active normally, but responses seemed unaffected by prior treatment: animals previously stimulated while stereotyping did not treat the probe as more novel or ‘surprising’ than animals previously stimulated during normal behaviour. These results could not be tested statistically, however, so this study needs to be replicated on a larger scale. Together, these results suggest that mink do not pay less attention when stereotyping than during normal behaviour, and that stereotyping mink are not ‘shutting themselves off’ from their sub-optimal environments. It also gives us a technique for testing similar hypotheses concerning, for example, rumination in cattle.

Examination of sickness behaviour in dogs with lymphoma being treated with chemotherapy – preliminary results
T. Sparling 1, S.T. Millman2, J. Higginson2, J.P. Woods3

Department of Population Medicine (1,2); Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph (3)

Chemotherapy has become a common treatment for dogs with cancer, offering a 60-90 percent remission rate for dogs with lymphoma. However, chemotherapy can result in toxicities and alterations in behaviour (i.e. fatigue, vomiting and anorexia). There has been little research focused on the behavioural changes experienced. Hence, this project investigated sickness behaviour in dogs with lymphoma treated with chemotherapy. We hypothesized dogs with lymphoma would experience a clinically significant decrease in the level of sickness behaviour exhibited following treatment. To investigate this hypothesis, we utilized questionnaires, physical exams, and Actical activity monitors (MiniMitter Biotelemetry) to acquire information regarding activity level, anxiety, pain, appetite, and side effects of dogs with lymphoma being treated with chemotherapy at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Owners were asked to act as proxy for their dogs. Presently, 16 dogs have been enrolled in this eleven week study and data is available from 7 dogs that have completed the study. Owners reported a 2 point increase (on a 5 point scale) in welfare and energy between the beginning and end of the induction phase of the chemotherapy protocol. These dogs also exhibited an improvement in overall clinical condition. Owners reported that the dogs improved from a restricted condition to a normal condition. A ‘restricted’ condition refers to a dog that has restricted activity compared to pre-disease level, but is able to perform as an acceptable pet; and a ‘normal’ condition refers to a dog that is fully active and able to perform at pre-disease level. Based on the preliminary data, it appears that dogs with lymphoma are experiencing an increased quality of life during the induction phase of chemotherapy. Further knowledge in this area of cancer treatment will allow clinicians and owners to judge treatment response in individual animals and ensure overall welfare and quality of life.

Is tusk trimming in boars a welfare issue?
K. Bovey (1), P. Lawlis (2) and T. Widowski (1)

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1 (1), Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, London, Ontario, Canada N6E 1L3 (2)

Suid boars, since they have continually growing tusks, pose a safety hazard to both human handlers and other animals. Since domestic boars do not require tusks for defense or foraging behaviours, tusk trimming is often performed. Additionally, current transport regulations in Canada require tusks to be trimmed for shipping boars unless boars are shipped individually. Though tusk trimming is mentioned in publications ranging from industry factsheets to codes of practice, specific methods are rarely given. Boar tusk structure, innervation and behavioural responses to the procedure that may be indicative of pain have not been determined empirically. In this study 10 cull boar mandibles were evaluated for tusk condition and assigned scores for supragingival tusk length and pulp tissue exposure, and for degree of gingivitis present. Of the 20 tusks examined on 10 mandibles, 11 tusks (55% of all samples) were assigned the score associated with the highest degree of gingivitis. Nine tusks (45% of all samples) were assigned the score associated with the presence of pulp chamber exposure and subgingival fractures. Of these 9 tusks, 8 also had scores associated with the highest level of gingivitis indicating that Inflammation may be associated with trimmed tusks. Preliminary results obtained following decalcification of the tusks provided overall pulp chamber length. On average, the tusk pulp chamber extends 1.125 cm supragingivally; that is to say if tusks are trimmed as per the current industry standard of within 2 mm of the gingiva, the pulp chamber will be exposed. Further work will examine the presence and density of vascularization and innervation throughout the length of the pulp chamber will be determined via histological and immunohistochemical evaluation following manual extraction of tusks from 5 different animals.

To old to care? Resistance to environmental enrichment in individuals with a long history of stereotypic behaviour
S. Tilly, G. Mason

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph

When captive animals show stereotypic behaviour (e.g. pacing), environmental enrichment (e.g. adding more complexity or opportunities to perform natural behaviour to their enclosures) usually reduces it. However, this is not always the case: in some species, it is known that if stereotypic individuals are kept in barren cages for a very long time, their abnormal behaviour stops being ameliorated by environmental enrichment. This could implicate that older animals no longer find the enrichments ‘enriching’: that is, they no longer improve welfare. For example, older individuals could suffer from anhedonia, and a tendency to interpret neutral or positive events, such as adding enrichment to the home cage, as negative. Alternatively, older animals could value the enrichments just as much as younger ones – but be too ‘fixed’ in their stereotypic behaviour to change it. The aim is to find out which of these ideas is correct. If environmental enrichments no longer improve welfare for older individuals, it is to be expected that older animals will be less willing to 'pay' to visit and use enrichment than younger individuals. Therefore, using C57BL/6 mice as a model, it will be investigated how much older and younger individuals value environmental enrichment (in terms of the maximum weight they will push to get through a door to reach it); and whether the degree to which they value enrichment predicts the impact it has on their stereotypic behaviour.

Over 30 million mice are used for research p.a., it is known that a large majority will develop stereotypic behaviour. This research will assess the motivation of juvenile and adult mice for environmental enrichment and in addition it will help us understand what effect environmental enrichment has on mouse welfare.

Can male broiler breeder aggression towards females be predicted by changes in morphology and behaviour as they age?
C.M. Doherty, I.J.H. Duncan

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1

It has been shown that male broiler breeder (BB) domestic fowl do not show normal courtship behaviour and are very aggressive towards females. Changes that occur in morphology and behaviour as broiler breeder (BB) males mature were examined to determine if they predict aggression toward females at sexual maturity. Thirty males of three strains of chicken were used: two BB strains (Ross 344 and Hubbard M77) and one heritage breed (Columbian Plymouth Rock (CR)) as a control. All males were reared in single-sex groups according to breeder guidelines. At 10, 17 and 24 weeks, morphological measurements were taken and observations of agonistic behaviour were recorded. The agonistic behaviour of each male was used to calculate a dominance index for each age. At 24 weeks, all of the males were observed individually with three sexually naïve hens (Ross 308) and the frequency of sexual and aggressive behaviour recorded. Regressions were used to determine relationships between morphology and dominance index at each age with behaviour toward females. Partial correlations were used to determine relationships between morphology and dominance index at each age, on a per strain basis, and between different types of behaviour toward females within each strain. At all ages, correlations between morphological variables and dominance index were consistently high and positive for all strains (P<0.05). Hubbard males were significantly more aggressive, performed less courtship, and were accepted less readily by females compared to CR (P<0.05). There was no relationship between morphological measurements or dominance index with aggression. Dominance index at 10 weeks of age had a negative relationship (r2 = 0.353, P<0.05) with the incidence of displacement activities at 24 weeks of age for Hubbard and CR which were significantly different from Ross males (P<0.05). The Ross males had a positive relationship between dominance index and the incidence of displacement activities. Only the CR had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.409, P<0.05) between displacement activities and aggressive behaviour. This correlation may indicate that BB males do not experience enough conflicting motivation at the time of breeding. There are three conflicting drives that result in courtship behaviour in chickens: aggression, sex and fear. Selection for increased meat yield has caused decreased fear in broiler chickens and this may be linked to hyper-aggression in BB flocks. This conclusion requires further study.

An investigation of prepartum behaviour of primiparous and multiparous dairy cattle
K. Found, H. Putnam-Dingwell, S. Millman, K. Leslie

Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada

The impact of parity and its effects on the behaviour of dairy cattle in relation to calving difficulty and associated pain has yet to be determined, despite calving being an important and very common event on most dairy farms. The objective of this double-blind study was to determine the behavioural differences between eight primiparous heifers and 13 multiparous dairy cows in the immediate preparturient phase. Previously recorded videotapes of the 24 hours prior to calving were analyzed. Data collection involved video scan sampling every 5 minutes to analyze eating, drinking, periparturient and pain-related behaviours and calving difficulty. The application of a datalogger was used record standing and lying activity. Calving difficulty was scored as: 0-unassisted, 1-easy pull, 2-hard pull, 3-cesarean section. Data was analyzed using StataSE 10 to conduct mean comparison univariable analyses. Preliminary results suggest heifers have more drinking episodes and have more head-to-flank contact events while standing than do cows (0.027 vs. 0.015, p=0.04; 0.034 vs. 0.014, p=0.007 respectively). Heifers requiring assistance at calving also drank significantly more than heifers with unassisted calvings, p=0.04. Results also suggest heifers requiring assistance at calving are lying significantly longer than cows with assisted calvings (868 min/day vs. 555 min/day, p=0.01). Cows with more difficult calvings (C.S. ³ 2) were lying down for significantly less time throughout the day however the number of lying bouts experienced during this time was almost equal to that of cows experiencing an easier calving (C.S. > 2) (6.15 hr/day vs. 10.98 hr/day, p=0.05). It is possible that these behavioural differences are a result of underlying discomfort associated with parturition and/or a response to this novel experience in primiparous cows. This indicates there may be instances where pain management at calving is warranted to improve cow comfort and behavioural cues could be used to predict difficult calvings.

Evaluating on-farm euthanasia methods for cull turkeys
M.A. Erasmus (1), T. M. Widowski (1), B. Hunter (2), and P.V. Turner (2)

Departments of Animal and Poultry Science(1) and Pathobiology (2) University of Guelph

During the rearing period of commercial turkeys, a small number of birds may be injured, diseased or otherwise debilitated, necessitating euthanasia to prevent suffering. Currently, cervical dislocation is the most common method used for young turkeys, while blunt trauma to the head is used for older turkeys. There is no standard euthanasia method that has been shown to consistently induce a rapid and humane death, and neither of the aforementioned techniques is aesthetically acceptable to the operator. As an alternative to these two physical euthanasia methods, a non-penetrating captive bolt device will be evaluated for euthanasia of turkeys of different weight classes. Other tools that are currently being used in the industry, such as a burdizzo clamp (cervical crushing), will also be examined. The purpose of this study is to assess these euthanasia methods in terms of efficiency, operator safety, and efficacy. The different euthanasia methods will be compared in laboratory trials in ten birds from each weight class, including broilers (weighing between 2 and 7 kg), hens (weighing between 7 and 10 kg), and heavy hens and toms (weighing over 10 kg). Birds will be anaesthetized and gross necropsy and histopathology will be used to determine the extent of tissue injury. In addition, telemetry (electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) will be used to determine loss of brain and cardiac function. Each euthanasia method will also be assessed on-farm, using clinical measures of insensibility and the latency for breathing and heartbeat to cease. It is anticipated that euthanasia using the non-penetrating captive bolt device will be psychologically easier to perform than other physical methods and may be a cost effective alternative when small numbers of animals must be humanely dispatched. Furthermore, the non-penetrating captive bolt device may result in more rapid unconsciousness, thereby offering a more humane euthanasia alternative. Results from this research will be used to develop and provide recommendations for on-farm commercial turkey euthanasia.

Validation of a new technique for measuring thermal stress in market swine
E. Tamminga (1) , C. Dewey (2) , T. Crowe (3), R. Bergeron (4), T. Widowski (1)

Department Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (1), Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (2) Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering , University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada (3), Alfred Campus, University of Guelph, Alfred, Ontario, Canada (4)

Thermal stress is a major cause of fatigue, mortality and compromised welfare during transport. Therefore methods for continuous measurement of core body temperature during transport studies are highly useful to assist in determining the causes of this thermal stress. The objective of this study was to validate the Thermocron iButton temperature data logger (Dallas Semiconductor, TX, USA) for use in market pigs. Six market weight swine (99.6kg±3.91) in each of 4 repetitions were restrained and orally administered two iButtons for each of three 24 hour temperature periods when pigs were fasted and exposed to ambient temperatures of 33 (High), 23 (Neutral) and 13°C (Low), respectively over a twelve day trial. Treatment order was randomized across repetitions. During the experimental period hourly readings of rectal and tympanic temperature were taken on each individual. 48 hours after the end of the last temperature treatment the pigs were humanely stunned and slaughtered on site. Viscera were dissected in order to recover the iButtons. Location of recovery was recorded. 139 iButtons were retrieved with usable data, 7 were not recovered and 2 were found having been rejected by the animal. 36.69% (51/139) of the recovered and usable iButtons were found in the stomach, 20.86% (29/139) in the colon, 12.95% (18/139) in the cecum and 28.06% (39/139) in the manure, having been passed between 60 hours and >7.1 days. Usable data were downloaded from 139 iButtons using the Dallas Semiconductor software and Microsoft Excel. Preliminary statistics were performed using the SAS system and a means procedure. The mean temperature readings were 40.12°C±0.13, 39.67°C±0.09, 39.71°C±0.11 from the iButtons, 39.78°C±0.05, 38.95°C±0.04, 38.47°C±0.09 from the rectal thermometers and 39.07°C±0.08, 38.33°C±0.06, 37.47°C±0.55 from the tympanic thermometers for the High, Neutral and Low treatments respectively. The effects of ambient temperature and circadian rhythm on temperature measurements from iButton data loggers, rectal and tympanic thermometers will be reported.

Effectiveness of using a non-penetrating captive bolt for on-farm euthanasia of low viability piglets
R.H. Elgie (1), P. Lawlis (2), K. Reynolds (1), A. Rehmtulla (2), I.J.H. Duncan (1), T.M. Widowski (1)

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, ON, Canada (1), Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Canada (2)

Low birth weight piglets have a low survival rate and often must be euthanized. Manual blunt trauma to the head is currently recommended by the AVMA. A non-penetrating captive bolt device (Zephyr) that is effective and more aesthetically acceptable would be a valuable alternative. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effectiveness of the Zephyr in comparison to blunt trauma for on-farm euthanasia of low viability piglets. Seven stockpeople from four commercial and one research farm were supplied with a Zephyr gun and air compressor and trained how to operate the device. Stockpeople euthanized low viability piglets with either the Zephyr (ZE) (N=70) or manual blunt trauma (BT) (N=49). Some of these piglets could not be used because of stockperson error, data collection error or they regained consciousness. The total number of pigs included in the analysis was 55 (ZE) and 44 (BT). Signs of sensibility, respiration, duration of reflex movements and heart beat were recorded. Subcutaneous and subdural hemorrhaging and degree of skull fracture were scored on a five point scale during post-mortem examination. Data were analyzed using SAS Proc Mixed procedure with variables duration and score as variables and analyzed for Farm, Stockperson, Treatment and their interactions. Piglets euthanized by ZE had longer durations of leg movement and heart beat (143.19 ± 13.06 vs. 80.80 ± 9.37sec, P<0.001 and 493.89 ± 44.69 vs. 191.47 ± 26.02 sec, P<0.0001, respectively) as well as higher subcutaneous and subdural hemorrhage scores (3.58 ± 0.15 vs. 2.34 ± 0.19, P<0.0001 and 3.56 ± 0.15 vs. 2.61 ± 0.22, P=0.0003; respectively) as compared to BT regardless of stockperson performance. However, there was also variation among stockpeople for skull fracture score (P=0.0012) and subcutaneous hemorrhage score (P<0.04) suggesting the degree of trauma is inconsistent. There were a greater number of ZE piglets (11/70) which regained signs of sensibility as compared to BT (1/49). Manual blunt trauma to the head is a rapid and effective method for on-farm euthanasia of low viability piglets. Further modification to training, technique and the apparatus are required before the Zephyr can be recommended as an equally humane alternative for producers considering euthanasia.