Suitability Maps By Criteria
The following five maps (figures 3-7) show the intermediate suitability findings. Each map shows the suitability for a specific criteria according to the classification scheme developed in Objective 2. For the hydrological sensitivity (distance to stream), the highest suitability for this layer was between a 3-4 km distance to stream therefore the greater than 4 km class was excluded. As well, for the income suitability layer, no data classification exists for two census tracts that did not have a high enough respondance rate to be statistically significant (Statics Canada, 20017). No vacant properties corresponded to these two census tracts and as such can be ignored for the purpose of this study.
Figure 3: Slope Suitability Layer
Figure 4: Aspect Suitability Layer
Figure 5: Soil Suitability Layer
Figure 6: Distance to Stream Suitability Layer
Figure 7: Income Suitability Layer
Figure 8: Final Suitability Raster of Hamilton Ontario From Multi-Criteria Evaluation.
Figure 8 shows the final suitability map for urban agriculture in Hamilton. The suitability map fell within a 1-5 classification with higher values representing a greater suitability for urban agriculture. Figure 8 was created using the Weighted Overlay tool in ArcGIS based on the criteria layers that are shown in figures 3-7 of Objective 3. Figure 8 has a 10 m cell size which is common to all the input criteria rasters. The map has some distinct spatial patterns that are applicable to the siting of urban agriculture beyond the scope of this project. The downtown core is evidently the most suitable area for urban agriculture. This was influenced by income and distance to stream criteria due to their individual spatial suitability patterning. Areas in the north east of the Hamilton CMA were also notably suitable, this is due to beneficial agriculturally relevant criteria, soil type and aspect as well as acceptable income suitability.
The following statistics were calculated for the suitability raster map.
Table 4: Suitability Statistics
Vacant Property Ranking
For the vacant property ranking aspect of the Hamilton case study, the suitability scores for each vacant property was calculated using the Zonal Statistics as Table tool in ArcGIS. The mean suitability score for each property was calculated and could then be listed in order of suitability for urban agriculture. There were a total of 98 vacant properties within the outlined constraints. These properties fell within the suitibility value range of 1.97 - 3.13. The average suitability values for the properties was 2.71. Only two properties had a suitability value above 3, these two properties were chosen as the optimal sites for urban agriculture in Hamilton. Figure 9 and 10 show the location of these two properties (Property A & Property B). As shown in Figure 8 the downtown core and some areas in the north west of Hamilton are the best areas for urban agriculture however, Property A and Property B are both outside these areas. To explain this it should be understood there there are no properties within the downtown core that meet the size constraint and the north west areas are outside the urban boundary.
Figure 9: Map of Property A
Property A is a 21.8 ha lot in the Waterdown area of the Hamilton CMA. The Property had a suitability score of 3.107692. The property sits on Dundas Road east and falls under the potential development status. The benefit of this site is that it is a very large piece of land that could produce a significant amount of food. The limitation of this site is that it is in a small urban enclave outside the main urban are of Hamilton.
Figure 10: Map Of Property B
Property B is a 2.9 ha lot in South Hamilton. The property had the highest suitability score of all vacant properties: 3.133115. The property sits just off Dicenzo Dr. near Upper James Street and falls under the pending approval development status. The property was pending approval in 2013, but at this time it is still undeveloped with no approval for development. The benefits of this site are that it is within a relatively populated area with easy access to transportation.