Fast Turfgrass Facts
What is a turf?
A turf is a perennial stand of living groundcover that can withstand traffic, grazing and mowing. Turf includes the entire system including the pant material the soil and the thatch.
What is a turfgrass?
A turfgrass is any grass plant that can form a turf.
Turfgrasses can be defined by their temperature tolerance or climatic condition that they prefer to grow in. There are two categories of turfgrasses warm season and cool season grasses.
1. Cool Season grasses:
Cool season grasses are found mostly in the northern cool humid and cool arid-semiarid zones. Their optimum temperature ranges between 15 and 24 0C (60 – 750F), and they begin growing when soil temperatures reach 4.5 – 7 0C (40 – 45 0F). Cool season turfgrass are C3 grasses that have fast recovery from winter dormancy in the spring, but will go dormant if not irrigated during hot summer temperatures. Examples of Cool Season grasses:
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)
Tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea)
Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera)
Velvet bentgrass (Agrostis canina)
Colonial bentgrass (Agrostis tenuis)
Creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra)
Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra ssp. fallax)
Sheeps fescue (Festuca ovina)
Hard fescue (Festuca brevipila, Festuca duriuscula, Festuca longifolia)
Blue fescue (Festuca glauca, Festuca arvernensis)
Kentucky bluegrass (Poa Pratensis)
Annual bluegrass (Poa annua)
Rough Stalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis)
Supina bluegrass ( Poa supina)
Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa)
2. Warm Season Grasses:
Warm season grasses are found primarily in southern warm humid and warm arid zones. Their optimum shoot growth temperature ranges between 26 – 35 0C (80 - 95 0F), and begin growth in the spring when the soil temperature is > 150C (600F). Warm season grasses are C4 grasses that have deep root systems that allow them to withstand extreme high temperatures > 37 0C (>1000F). Examples of Warm Season grasses:
Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp., Cynodon dactylon)
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia sp., Zoysia japonica, Zoysia matrella)
Seashore Paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum)
St. Augustine (Stenotaphrum secundatum)
Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides)
Centipede (Eremochloa ophiurioides)
Carpetgrass (Axonopus sp.)
Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum)
• Sports turf: are stands of turf that can withstand extreme amounts of traffic and soil compaction, while providing relatively uniform and safe playing conditions. Ex: golf, soccer, football, tennis, lawn bowling, etc.