How do I kill Thee?   Let me count the Ways!   (# 35)  click here for full list

Haptocillium species:   The genus Haptocillium was erected by Zare and Gams to include  Verticillium-like fungi that parasitized nematodes by adhesive conidia.   In Haptocillium species the conidia are produced from phialidic conidiogenous cells that may be in verticillate arrangement on erect conidiophores or scattered irregularly along the length of prostrate fertile hyphae (degenerated conidiophores?).  The conidia are modified at their distal end so that they attach to the cuticle of nematodes.    In most species there is no obvious morphological adaptation to aid in adhesion and the conidia do not appear particularly unusual.   In the fungus I described as Verticillium coronatum, however, the conidia have a distinct morphological modification  at the distal end that perhaps aids them in attaching to the nematode cuticle.   This species is not a Verticillium by current standards and may well be transferred to Haptocillium when its relationships are confirmed by molecular analysis.  For further information on this species see Barron, G.L. 1989.  Can. J. Bot. 66: 267-271.   For more on Haptocillium see Zare, R and Gams, W. 2001. Nova Hedwigia 73: 271-292.

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Verticillium coronatum:  Left micrograph - Parasitized nematode with conidia attached to the cuticle and verticillate conidiophores arising from the host.   Right micrograph - Conidia of fungus with lobes at the distal end.