[Figs. 1 - 4]
Complete list of papers on Cryptobia and cryptobiosis
|Fig. 1: Cryptobia (T.) salmositica with a red cell from an anemic fish||Fig. 2: Bilateral exophthalmia in acute salmonid cryptobiosis|
|Fig. 3: Splenomegaly (6 - 8 times by volume)||Fig. 4: General edema and abdominal distension with ascites|
The program on cryptobiosis is a multidisciplinary study. It is on the biology of the pathogen, diagnosis of infection, pathobiology in cryptobiosis including elucidation of the disease mechanism, host immune responses, and the development of 'proof-of-concept' strategies against the parasite and disease (Woo, 2003).Preventive strategies include exploiting innate and adaptive immunity, chemotherapy and immunochemotherapy (Woo, 2010).
Gene Sequences of Cryptobia salmositica in GENBANK
(1) Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & P.T.K. Woo (2004) Methionine adenosyltransferase gene. GENBANK No. AY603961.
(2) Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & P.T.K. Woo (2004) Major surface glycoprotein metalloproteinase gene - key gene involved in pathogensis. GENBANK No. AY632692.
(3) Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & P.T.K. Woo (2004) Cysteine proteinase gene. GENBANK No. AY713477.
[Figs. 4 - 8]
Systemic spironucleosis is caused by Spironucleus (Fig. 4) - the parasite is in the blood and internal organs of salmonids. The parasite causes morbidity and mortality in fishes and there have been outbreaks of the disease in salmon cultured in sea cages - in chinook salmon on the west coast of Canada and in Atlantic salmon in Norway. Fish mortality was high and some infected chinook salmon had abdominal distensions and were anemic while infected Atlantic salmon were significantly smaller than healthy fish and they behaved'abnormally' prior to death. Little is known about the biology of the pathogen nor factors that precipitated the outbreaks, and there are at present no preventive nor control strategies against the parasite and the disease. (Woo, 2006. Chapter 3. In: Fish Diseases and Disorders, Vol. 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infections, 2nd edition, pages 46-114).
|Fig. 5: Spironucleus in salmon||Fig. 6: Unilateral exophthalmia||Fig. 7: Ulceration on body surface||Fig. 8: Globulated and enlarged spleen|