Cryptobia and Cryptobiosis
The research program has enjoyed continuous NSERC funding since its inception in 1974.

Cryptobia salmositica with a red blood cell from an anaemic fishBilateral exophthalmia in salmonid cryptobiosis (acute phase)General oedema and abdominal distension with ascites
 

Salmonid cryptobiosis is caused by the hemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. The parasite is transmitted by leeches (Piscicola salmositica) in streams and rivers on the Pacific coast of North America; however, direct transmission can also occur when infected and uninfected fish are held for prolonged periods in the same tank or under certain hatchery conditions.Clinical signs include anorexia, exophthalmia, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, general edema and abdominal distention with ascites, a microcytic and hypochromic anemia,and red cells are antiglobulin positive. Infected salmonids are susceptible to hypoxia, and their metabolism and swimming performance are reduced. Also, the lytic activities of complement in sera of infected fish are reduced, and the ability of infected fish to mount a protective response against a secondary pathogen and/or antigen is depressed. The anemia and anorexia in infected fish contribute to the immunodepression. The pathogen has at least two proteases - the cysteine protease is a metabolic enzyme while metalloprotease (a histolytic enzyme) is the main virulent factor.

112. MacDonald, L., Alderman, S., Kramer, S., Woo, P.T.K. & Bernier, N. 2014. Hypoxaemia-induced leptin secretion: a mechanism for the control of food intake in diseased fish. J. Endocrinol. 221: 441-455.

111. Li, M. & Woo, P.T.K. 2014. Glucocorticoid receptors on and in a unicellular organism, Cryptobia salmositica. Internat'l. J. Parasitol. 44: 205-210..

110. Woo, P.T.K. & Ardelli, B.F. 2014. Immunity against selected piscine flagellates. Develop. Comp. Immunol. 43: 268-279.

109. Madison, B.N., Woo, P.T.K. & Bernier, N.J. 2013. Duress without stress: Cryptobia infection results in HPI axis dysfunction in rainbow trout. J. Endocrinol. 218: 287-297.

108. Li, M., Leatherland, J. & Woo, P.T.K. 2013. Cortisol and dexamethasone increase the in vitro multiplication of the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica, possibly by interaction with a glucocorticoid receptor-like protein. Internat'l. J. Parasitol. 43: 353-360.

107. Woo, P.T.K. 2010. Immunological and therapeutic strategies against salmonid cryptobiosis (Special issue: Immunology and Cell Biology of Parasitic Diseases), J. Biomed. Biotechnol. Article ID341783, 9 pages [doi:10.1155/2010/341783].

106. Guo, F.C. & Woo, P.T.K. 2009. Selected parasitosis in cultured and wild fish. Vet. Parasitol. 163: 207-216.

105. Currie, J.L.M. & Woo, P.T.K. 2008. Effects of the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica on brood fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Environ. Biol. Fish. 83: 355-365.

104. Nourollahi-Fard, S.R. & Woo P.T.K. 2008. Contribution of food deprivation to the immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) vaccinated against Cryptobia salmositica and Aeromonas salmonicida. Acta Vet. Hung. 56: 197-206.

103. Tan, C.W., Jesudhasan, R.R.R. & Woo, P.T.K. 2008. Towards a metalloprotease-DNA vaccine against piscine cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 102: 265-275.

102. Currie, J.L.M. & Woo, P.T.K. 2007. Susceptibility of sexually mature rainbowtrout, Oncorhynchus mykiss to experimental cryptobiosis caused by Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 101: 1057-1067.

101. Davy, C.M., Crispo, E. & Woo, P.T.K. 2007. Use of a live Cryptobia vaccine to modulate Cryptobia salmositica infections in Salmo salar L. Dis. Aquat. Org. 76: 45-48.

100. Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & Woo, P.T.K. 2007. A S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from the pathogenic piscinehemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 100: 1401-1406.
[Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & Woo, P.T.K. (2004) Methionine adenosyltransferase gene. GENBANK No. AY603961]

99. Jesudhasan, P.R.R., Tan, C.W. & Woo, P.T.K. 2007. A metalloproteinase gene from the pathogenic piscine hemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 100: 899-904.
[Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & Woo, P.T.K. (2004) Major surface glycoprotein metalloproteinase gene - key gene involved in pathogensis. GENBANK No. AY632692]

98. Jesudhasan, P.R.R., Tan, C.W., Hontzeas, N. & Woo, P.T.K. 2007. A cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase gene from the pathogenic piscine hemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 100: 881-886.
[Jesudhasan, P.R.R. & Woo, P.T.K. (2004) Cysteine proteinase gene. GENBANK No. AY713477]

97. Woo, P.T.K. 2007. Protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases. Parassitologia 49: 185-191.

96. Chin, A. & Woo, P.T.K. 2005. Innate cell-mediated immune response and peripheral leukocyte populations in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., to a live Cryptobia salmositica vaccine. Parasitol. Res. 95: 299-304.

95.Woo, P.T.K. 2005. Salmonid cryptobiosis and strategies against the disease. Acta Zool. Sinica 51: 546-549.

94. Chin, A., Glebe, B. & Woo, P.T.K. 2004. Humoral response and susceptibility of five full-sibs families of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica Kataz 1951. J. Fish Dis. 27: 471-481.

93. Chin, A., Guo, F.C. Bernier, N., & Woo,P.T.K. 2004. Cryptpbia salmositica-induced anorexia and itseffects on gastric evacuation, feeding hierarchy and immune response againsta live vaccine in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.Dis. Aquat. Org. 58: 17-26.

92. Woo, P.T.K. 2004. On cryptobiosis and infection by Cryptobia. J. Fish Dis. 27: 493-494.

91. Woo, P.T.K. 2004. The pathophysiology of salmonid cryptobiosis and Glossina-transmitted mammalian trypanosomiasis in livestock. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 55: 91-105.

90. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2003. In vitro nutritional requirements and metabolic products of pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Cryptobia salmositica: observations on essential carbohydrates and amino acids. Dis. Aquat. Org. 56: 49-57.

89. Woo, P.T.K. 2003. Cryptobia (Trypanoplasma) salmositica and salmonid cryptobiosis. J. Fish Dis. 26: 627-646.

88. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2002. Experimental Cryptobia salmositica (Kinetoplastida) infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Cell-mediated and humoral responses againstthe pathogenic and vaccine strains of the parasite. J. Fish Dis. 25: 265-274.

87. Mehta, M. & Woo, P.T.K. 2002. Acquired cell-mediated protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica Parasitol. Res. 88: 956-962.

86. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2001a. Conjugation of isometamidium chloride to antibodies and the use of the conjugate against the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica: An immuno-chemotherapeutic strategy. J. Fish Dis. 24: 439-451.

85. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2001b. In vitro secretion of metabolic end-products by the piscine haemoflagellates, Cryptobia salmositica and C. bullocki (Kinetoplastida) and the relationship of these products to the pH in the medium. Folia Parasitol. 48: 187-191.

84. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2001c. Therapeutic and prophylactic effects of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) against thehaemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Parasitol. Res. 87: 18-26.

83. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2001d. The in vitro effects of isometamidium chloride (Samorin) on the piscine hemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica (Kinetoplastida, Bodonina). J. Parasitol. 87: 194-202.

82. Bahmanrokh, M. & Woo, P.T.K. 2001. Relationships between histopathology and parasitaemias in Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with Cryptobia salmositica, a pathogenic haemoflagellate. Dis. Aquat. Org. 46: 41-45.

81. Hontzeas, N., Feng, S., & Woo, P.T.K. 2001. Inhibitory effects of a monoclonal antibody (MAb-001) on in vitrooxygen consumption and multiplication of the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobiasalmositica Katz.. J. Fish Dis. 24: 391-398.

80. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 2001. Cell membrane glycoconjugates on virulent and avirulent strains of the pathogenic haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz. J. Fish Dis. 24: 23-32.

79. Woo, P.T.K. 2001. Cryptobiosis and its control in North American fishes. Internat'l. J. Parasitol. 31: 565-573.

78. Ardelli, B.F., Witt, J.D.S. & Woo, P.T.K. 2000. The identification of glycosomes and metabloic end products in pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of Cryptobia salmositica (Kinetoplastida). Dis. Aquat. Org. 42: 41-51.

77. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 2000. An antigen-cature enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect isometamidium chloride in Oncorhynchus spp. Dis. Aquat. Org. 39: 231-236.

76. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 2000. In vitro haemolysis of piscine erythrocytes by purified metallo-protease from the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica Katz.J. Fish Dis. 23: 227-230.

75. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 1999. The therapeutic use of isometamidium chloride against Cryptobia salmositica in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Dis. Aquat. Org. 37: 195-203.

74. Woo, P.T.K. 1999. The use of monoclonal antibodyprobes in salmonid cryptobiosis. Aquaculture 177: 311-324.

73. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998a. The in vitro effects of crystal violet on the pathogenic haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951. Parasite 5: 27-36.

72. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998b. Improved culture media for piscine haemoflagellates Cryptobia and Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida). J. Parasitol. 84: 1267-1271.

71. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998a. Biochemical characterization of an epitope on the surface membrane antigen (Cs-gp200) of the pathogenic piscine hemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz 1951. Exptl. Parasitol. 88: 3-10.

70. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998b. Characterization of a 200 kDa glycoprotein (Cs-gp200) on the pathogenic haemoflagellate,Cryptobia salmositica. Dis. Aquat. Org. 32: 41-48.

69. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998c. Identification of carbohydrates on the surface membrane of pathogenic and nonpathogenicpiscine haemoflagellates, Cryptobia salmositica, C.bullocki and C. catostomi (Kinetoplastida). Dis. Aquat.Org. 32: 201-209.

68. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998d. The in vitro and in vivo effects of rabbit anti-thymocyte serum on circulating leucocytes and production of complement fixing antibodies inthymectomized Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) infected with Cryptobiasalmositica Katz 1951. J. Fish Dis. 21: 241-248

67. Woo, P.T.K. 1998. Protection against Cryptobia (Trypanoplasma) salmositica and salmonid cryptobiosis. Parasitol. Today 14: 272-277.

66. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998a. Characterization of purified metallo- and cysteine proteases from the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica Katz 1951. Parasitol. Res. 84: 492-498.

65. Zuo, X.. & Woo, P.T.K. 1998b. In vitro secretion of metalloprotease by the pathogenic haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz 1951 and stimulation of the protease production by collagen. J. Fish Dis. 21: 249-255.

64. Ardelli, B. F. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997. Protective antibodies and anamnestic response in Salvelinus fontinalis to Cryptobia salmositica and innate resistance of Salvelinus namaycush to the hemoflagellate. J. Parasitol. 83: 943-946.

63. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997a. Complement fixing antibody production in thymectomized Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), vaccinated against or infected with the pathogenic haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica. Folia Parasitol. 44: 188-194.

62. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997b. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of a protective monoclonal antibody (MAb-001) against the pathogenic haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz 1951. Dis. Aquat. Org. 28: 211-219.

61. Li, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997. Vaccination of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against cryptobiosis: efficacy of the vaccine in fresh and sea water. J. Fish Dis. 20: 369-374.

60. Vommaro, R.C., Attias, M., Woo, P.T.K., &De Souza, W. 1997. Surface charge and surface carbohydrates of Cryptobia salmositica (virulent and avirulent strains), and Cryptobia bullocki (Kinetoplastida). Parasitol. Res. 83: 698-705.

59. Woo, P.T.K. 1997a. Salmonid cryptobiosis and protective strategies against the disease. FAO Animal Prod. Hlth. 136: 32-35.

58. Woo, P.T.K. 1997b. Immunization against parasiticdiseases of fish. Dev. Biol. Stand. 90: 233-241.

57. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997a. Proteases in pathogenic and nonpathogenic hemoflagellates, Cryptobia spp. (Kinetoplastida) of fishes. Dis. Aquat. Org. 29: 57-65.

56. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997b. The in vivo neutralization of proteases from Cryptobia salmositica by alpha 2-macroglobulin in the blood of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis. Dis. Aquat.Org. 29: 67-72.

55. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997c. Purified metalloprotease from the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica and its in vitro proteolytic activities.Dis. Aquat. Org. 30: 177-185

54. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997d. Natural antiproteases in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, and the in vitro neutralization of fish alpha 2-macroglobulin by the metalloprotease from thepathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitology 114: 375-382.

53. Zuo, X., Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1997.The in vitro inhibition of proteases from Cryptobia salmositicaKatz by a monoclonal antibody (MAb-001) against a glycoprotein on the pathogenichaemoflagellate. J. Fish Dis. 20: 419-426.

52. Beamish, F.W.H., Sitja-Bobadilla, A., Jebbink, J.A. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996. Bioenergetic cost of cryptobiosis in fish: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected with Cryptobia salmositica and with an attenuated live vaccine. Dis. Aquat. Org. 25:1-8.

51. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996a. Biological characterization of a monoclonal antibody against a surface membrane antigen on Cryptobia salmositica. J. Fish Dis. 19: 137-143.

50. Feng, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996b. Cell-mediated immune response and T-like cells in thymectomized Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) infected with or vaccinated against the pathogenic hemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 82: 604-611.

49. Forward, G.M. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996. An in vitro study on the mechanism of innate immunity in Cryptobia-resistant brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) against Cryptobia salmositica. Parasitol. Res. 82: 238-241.

48. Li, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996a. A species specific Cryptobia salmositica (Kinetoplastida) DNA probe and its uses in salmonid cryptobiosis. Dis. Aquat. Org. 25: 9-14.

47. Li, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996b. Effects oftemperature and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) serum supplementon the in vitro multiplication of Cryptobia catostomiin cell-free culture medium. Parasitol. Res. 82: 276-278.

46. Li, S., Cowey, C.B. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996. The effects of dietary ascorbic acid on Cryptobia salmositica infection and on vaccination against cryptobiosis in Oncorhynchus mykiss.Dis. Aquat. Org. 24: 11-16.

45. Verity, C.K. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the 47 kDa antigen of Cryptobiasalmositica Katz and its use in a antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay for the detection of parasite antigen in infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss . J. Fish Dis. 19: 91-109.

44. Woo, P.T.K. 1996. Protective immune response of fish to parasitic flagellates. Ann. Rev. Fish Dis. 6: 121-131.

43. Zuo, X. & Woo, P.T.K. 1996. Acid phosphatase in pathogenic and nonpathogenic hemoflagellates, Cryptobia spp. of fishes. J. Parasitol. 82: 893-899.

42. Ardelli, B.F. & Woo, P.T.K. 1995. Immune response of Cryptobia-resistant and Cryptobia-susceptible Salvelinus fontinalis to an Aeromonas salmonicida vaccine. Dis. Aquat. Org. 23: 33-38.

41. Forward, G.M., Ferguson, M.M. & Woo, P.T.K. 1995. Susceptibility of brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis to the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica, and the inheritance of innate resistance by progenies of resistant fish. Parasitology 11: 337-345.

40. Kumarguru, A.K., Beamish, F.W.H. & Woo, P.T.K. 1995. Impact of a pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica on the metabolism and swimming performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis. 18: 297-305.

39. Li, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1995. Efficacy ofa live Cryptobia salmositica vaccine, and the mechanism ofprotection in vaccinated Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against cryptobiosis. Vet. Immunol. & Immunopathol. 48: 343-353.

38. Woo, P.T.K. 1995. Piscine cryptobiosis and immunological protective strategies. Dis. Asian Aquaculture 2: 381-392.

37. Ardelli, B.F., Forward, G.M. & Woo P.T.K. 1994. Brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) and cryptobiosis: A potential salmonid reservoir host for Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951. J. Fish Dis. 17: 567-577.

36. Sitja-Bobadilla, A. & Woo, P.T.K. 1994. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against the pathogenic haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica Katz and protection against cryptobiosis in juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss(Walbaum) inoculated with a live Cryptobia vaccine. J. Fish Dis. 17:399-408.

35. Woo, P.T.K. 1992. Immunological responses of fish to parasitic organisms. Ann. Rev. Fish Dis. 2: 339-366.

34. Woo, P.T.K. & Thomas, P.T. 1992. Comparative in vitro studies on the virulent and avirulent strains ofCryptobia salmositica (Sarcomastigophora: Kinetoplastida).J. Fish Dis. 15: 261-266.

33. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1992a. In vitro culture and multiplication of Cryptobia catostomi and experimental infection in white suckers (Catostomus commersoni). Can. J. Zool. 70: 201-204.

32. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1992b. Anorexia in Oncorhynchus mykiss infected with Cryptobia salmositica (Sarcomastigophora: Kinetoplastida): Its onset and contribution to the immunodepression. J. Fish Dis. 15: 443-447.

31. Thomas, P.T., Ballantyne, J.S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1992. In vitro oxygen consumption and motility of Cryptobia salmositica, C. bullocki and C. catostomi (Sarcomastigophora: Kinetoplastida). J. Parasit. 78: 747-749.

30. Li, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1991a. In vitro effects of fetal bovine serum and glucose on multiplication ofCryptobia salmositica. J. Parasit. 77: 151-155.

29. Li, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1991b. Anorexia reduces the severity of cryptobiosis in Oncorhynchus mykiss. J. Parasit. 77: 467-471.

28. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1991. In vitro and in vivo effects of antimicrobial agents on viability of Cryptobia salmositica (Sarcomastigophora: Kinetoplastida). Dis. Aquat. Org. 10: 7-11.

27. Woo, P.T.K. & Thomas, P.T. 1991a. Polypeptide and antigen profiles Cryptobia salmositica, C. bullocki and C. catostomi (Kinetoplastida: Sarcomastigophora) isolated from fishes. Dis. Aquat. Org. 11: 201-205.

26. Woo, P.T.K. & Thomas, P.T. 1991b. In vitro activation of salmonid complement by mammalian antibodies. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 1: 313-315.

25. Woo, P.T.K. 1990. MISET: An immunological technique for the serodiagnosis of Cryptobia salmositica (Sarcomastigophora: Kinetoplastida) infection in Salmo gairdneri. J. Parasit.76: 389-393.

24. Woo, P.T.K. & Li, S. 1990. In vitro attenuation of Cryptobia salmositica and its use as a live vaccine against cryptobiosis in Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Parasit. 76: 752-755.

23. Jones, S.R.M. & Woo, P.T.K. 1990a. Cryptobia cataractae from the blood of Semotilus atromaculatus and division in the fish. J. Parasit. 76: 645-649.

22. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1990a. Dietary modulation of humoral immune response and anaemia in Oncorhynchus mykissinfected with Cryptobia salmositica. J. Fish Dis. 13: 435-446.

21. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1990b. In vivo and in vitro cell-mediated immune responses of Oncorhynchusmykiss against Cryptobia salmositica (Sarcomastigophora:Kinetoplastida). J. Fish Dis. 13: 423-433.

20. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1989a. Complement activity in Salmo gairdneri infected with Cryptobia salmositica and its relationship to the anaemia in cryptobiosis. J. Fish Dis. 12: 395-397.

19. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1989b. An in vitro study on the haemolytic components of Cryptobia salmositica. J. Fish Dis. 12: 389-393.

18. Laidley, C.W., Woo, P.T.K. & Leatherland, J.F. 1988. The stress-response of rainbow trout to experimental infection with the blood parasite, Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951. J.Fish Biol. 32: 253-261.

17. Thomas, P.T. & Woo, P.T.K. 1988. Cryptobia salmositica: in vitro and in vivo study on the mechanism of anaemia in infected rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. J. Fish Dis. 11: 425-431.

16. Jones, S.R.M. & Woo, P.T.K. 1987. The immune response of rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson to the haemoflagellate Cryptobia salmositica Katz l95l. J. Fish.Dis. 10: 395-402.

15. Woo, P.T.K. 1987a. Cryptobia and cryptobiosisin fishes. Adv. Parasitol. 26: 199-237.

14. Woo, P.T.K. 1987b. Immune response of fish to protozoan infections. Parasitol. Today 3: 186-188.

13. Woo, P.T.K., Leatherland, J.F. & Lee, M.S. 1987. Cryptobia salmositica: cortisol increases the susceptibility of Salmo gairdneri Richardson to experimental cryptobiosis. J. Fish. Dis. 10: 75-83.

12. Jones, S.R.M., Woo, P.T.K. & Stevenson, R.M.W. 1986. Immunosuppression in Salmo gairdneri caused by the haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica. J. Fish Dis. 9: 43l-438.

11. Woo, P.T.K. & Wehnert, S.D. 1986. Cryptobia salmositica: susceptibility of infected trout, Salmo gairdneri, to environmental hypoxia. J. Parasit. 72: 392-396.

10. Paterson, B. & Woo, P.T.K. 1983a. Electron microscopic observations of the bloodstream form of Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951 (Kinetoplastida: Bodonina). J. Protozool. 39: 431-437.

9. Woo, P.T.K. & Wehnert, S. 1983. Direct transmission of a haemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951 (Kinetoplastida: Bodonina) between rainbow trout under laboratory conditions. J. Protozool. 39: 334-337.

8. Woo, P.T.K., Wehnert, S.D. & Rodger, D.1983. The susceptibility of fishes to haemoflagellates at different ambient temperatures. Parasitology 87: 385-392.

7. Wehnert, S.D. & Woo, P.T.K. 1980. In vivo and in vitro studies on the host specificity of Trypanoplasma salmositica. J. Wildl. Dis. 16: 183-187.

6. Woo, P.T.K. 1979. Trypanoplasma salmositica: Experimental infections in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri.Exptl. Parasit. 47: 36-48.

5. Woo, P.T.K. 1978. The division process of Cryptobia salmositica in experimentally infected rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Can. J. Zool. 56: 1514-1518

4. Bower, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1977a. The morphology and host specificity of Cryptobia catostomi n.sp. (Protozoa: Cryptobiidae) from white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) insouthern Ontario. Can. J. Zool. 55: 1082-1092.

3. Bower, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1977b. Cryptobia catastomi: Incubation in plasma of susceptible and refractory fishes. Exp. Parasit. 43: 63-68.

2. Bower, S. & Woo, P.T.K. 1977c. Division and morphogenesis of Cryptobia catostomi in the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni). Can. J. Zool. 55: 1093-1099.

1. Katz, M., Woody, J.C., Becker, C.D., Woo, P.T.K. & Adams, J.R. 1966. Records of Cryptobia salmositica from sockeye salmon from the Fraser River drainage and the State of Washington. J. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada 23: 1965-1967.