1. Resource reserves of crude oil, natural gas and coal are proven and recoverable; resource reserves of copper, nickel, lead, zinc, silver and gold are proven and probable.
2. MVKM is million vehicle kilometres of traveled; **PROVINCIAL TOTAL /MVKM figures are obtained from MTO Safety Co-ordination and Development Office. These are based on total taxed gasoline and motor fuel sales and average fuel consumption. Plea se note that the latest available average fleet fuel consumption figure of 13.72 miles/gallon issued by Transport Canada is outdated by over 20 years. Vehicles today are more fuel efficient and may lead to a higher mileage. Therefore, Provincial MVKM figu res could be significantly higher.
Great Lakes Data:
1. All measurements are taken in open water with depths greater than 100 m..
2. Concentration measurements refer to mean values.
*Data includes secretariat estimates throughout compendium series
1. Data excludes the state of vascular plants, mosses, lichens, other fungi and algae.
2. Threatened species refer to the sum of the number of species in the endangered and vulnerable categories.
3. 1985- Canadian threatened mammals only concern marine mammals
- France data for known fish species refer to freshwater fish
- UK invertebrates concern terrestrial and freshwater fish only
1988- Norway mammals only include terrestrial species
- UK data refers to Great Britain only
- Invertebrate species, in Canada are greatly threatened by the introduction of Zebra mussel into the Great Lakes, but unknown which invertebrate species are threatened.
- Italy invertebrates include 39,000 species of insects
1991- In Canada, all reptiles and amphibians are declining due to urbanization and as above
- New Zealand only includes indigenous species
- Italy; as above
- UK data is for Great Britain only and invertebrates were estimated
4. Total land area excludes area under inland water
5. Major protected areas refer to IUCN categories I-V
6. Emissions of NOx and VOC’s include mobile and stationary sources
7. All emissions data refer only to man-made emissions
* Provincial - level pollution data set of China
1. The source of the emissions data from 1985 to 1990 is the China Environmental Quality Report, produced by the China National Environmental Monitoring Station, dated July, 1991. The source of the data from 1991 to 1995 is
the China Environment Yearbooks from China's National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA).
2. Ambient concentration is measured/defined as an 'annual daily average'.
3. Data source for the rivers is the China Environmental Yearbook from the National Environmental Protection Agency.
World Data Indicators:
1. The exchange rates used are period averages of either market or official rates for countries quoting rates in units of national currency per US dollar.
2. Gross domestic product per capita has been calculated using either market, official, or principal exchange rate (dependent on availability from International Monetary Fund).
Water Quality in Ontario:
1. The data is not a representation of the river as a whole, only at particular locations that are specified.
2. The data expresses the monthly averages of June, July, and August.
National Ambient Air Quality Objectives:
Canada - The maximum desirable level defines the long-term goal for air quality and provides a basis for an anti-degradation policy in unpolluted areas of the country. The maximum acceptable level is intended to provide adequate protection against adve rse effects on humans, animals, vegetation, soil, water, materials and visibility. The maximum tolerable level is determined by time-based concentrations of air contaminants. When air pollutants reach this level of concentration, appropriate action is req ujred without delay to protect the health of the general population.
USA- * The ozone 1-hour standard applies only to areas that were designated nonattainment when the ozone 8-hour standard was adopted in July 1997. This provision allows a smooth, legal, and practical transition to the 8-hour standard.
WHO - WHO Guidelines are currently under review. For example, draft recommendations for revisions to WHO standards indicate that the nitrogen dioxide guideline will be halved.
CONVERSION OF µg/m3 TO ppb / ppm
Molar Volume (V) at 25øC and 101325 Pa = (RT) / P
8.31432 * 298.15 / # 101325 = 0.02446
= 24.46498404 litres MOLAR VOLUME
Sulfur Dioxide 64.06
Carbon Monoxide 28.01
Nitrogen Dioxide 46.01
Conversion Factors = Molar Volume / Molecular Weight
Sulfur Dioxide 0.3819
Carbon Monoxide 0.8734 To convert from µg/m3 to ppb
Nitrogen Dioxide 0.5317
Ozone 0.5097 Multiply µg/m3 * Conversion Factor
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