American Hackberry - Celtis occidentalis
This shade tolerant, drought resistant shrub grows on a wide variety of soils in southern parts of Ontario and Quebec. Settlers in Illinois actually used the wood of this hackberry as a treatment for jaundice. The flowers of the American Hackberry are pollinated by wind and yield plentiful crops of fruit in most years.
The berries of American Hackberry are red drupes that are 6-8mm across that persist through the winter. They are usually sought out by game birds and small mammals. Photo by Chris Earley.
The bark of the American Hackberry is grey to yellowish-brown with wart-like ridges. Photo by Chris Earley.
The American Hackberry can grow up to 15m in height, with a diameter of 50cm. It can live for almost 150 years. Photo by Chris Earley.
The leaves are alternate and occur in 2 rows along the twig, measuring 6-9cm long. Photo by Sean Fox.
Ontario Tree Atlas map of non-planted American Hackberrys. 1995-1999.
Farrar, J.L.. 1995. Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd. Toronto. ON. 504 pp.
Kershaw, L. 2001. Trees in Ontario: Including tall shrubs. Lone Pine Publishing. Edmonton. AB. 240 pp
Muma, W. 2011. Ontario Trees and Shrubs. [Online] Available: www.ontariotrees.com
OMNR, 2011. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: Ontario Tree Atlas. [Online] Available: http://www.mnr.gov.on.ca/en/Business/ClimateChange/2ColumnSubPage/267027.html
OMNR, 2008. Ontario’s Biodiversity: Species at Risk.