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Internal Cooking Temperatures for Meat & Poultry

Internal temperature is measured using a digital instant read (displays the temperature within a few seconds) food thermometer. To ensure an accurate reading, place the stem of the food thermometer in the middle of the thickest part of the food and take temperature from several locations.

The following minimum temperatures are recommended for the safety and quality of meat. 

Note that the US Food Safety Information Service reduced the temperature for whole pork roasts to 63˚C (145˚F) followed by a 3 minute rest time.  

Type

Cut

Internal Temperature

Beef/Veal

Steaks/Roasts/Chops

Rare: 60˚C (140˚F)
Medium-rare: 63˚C (145˚F)
Medium: 71˚C (160˚F)
Well-done: 77˚C (170˚F)

Lamb

All cuts (slightly pink)

68°C (155°F)

Pork

Ham

All cuts raw (hint of pink)
Whole/roast
Pre-cooked (to reheat)

63˚C (145˚F)***
63˚C (145˚F)***
60˚C (140˚F)

Poultry

Pieces chicken or turkey
Whole chicken or turkey

Stuffing (alone or in bird)
Duck, goose, pheasant

74˚C (165˚F)
74˚C (165˚F) in breast &
82°C (180°F) in thigh**
74˚C (165˚F) 
82°C (180°F) in thigh** 

Ground Meat Mixtures*

Beef, veal, lamb and pork
Chicken and turkey

71˚C (160˚F)
74˚C (165˚F)

 *Burgers, sausages, meatballs, meatloaf and casseroles
**Thigh will get hotter than breast meat. Make sure thickest part of breast and stuffing reaches 74˚C (165˚F). 
***Three-minute holding/rest time after reaching this temperature. 

Information Sources

Beef Information Centre. (2011). Website. Retrieved from http://www.beefinfo.org Linkchecked 2012-05.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency. (2012). Food Thermometer Food Safety Tips. Retrieved from http://www.inspection.gc.ca/food/consumer-centre/food-safety-tips/food-handling/food-thermometer/eng/1326994984756/1326995100600 Link updated 2012-05.

Canadian Turkey Marketing Agency. (n.d.). Cooking times and temperatures. Retrieved from http://www.turkeyfarmersofcanada.ca/preparation/cookingTimes/ Link updated 2012-05.

Chicken Farmers of Canada. (n.d.). Chicken cooking times. Retrieved from http://chicken.ca/cooking-tips/food_safety_at_home/chicken-cooking-times Link updated 2012-05.

Ontario Sheep Marketing Agency. (n.d.). Buying and Cooking Lamb. Retrieved from http://www.lambrecipes.ca/CulinaryIndustry/BuyingandCookingLamb.aspx Link updated 2012-05.

Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. (2010) Safe Food Handling. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/public/pub/foodsafe/foodhandl.html 

Pork! Fork! (n.d.). Pork is done at 71! Retrieved from http://putporkonyourfork.com/all_about_pork/cooking_pork/temperature.html Link updated 2012-05.

US Department of Agriculture. 2011. USDA Revises Recommended Cooking Temperature for All Whole Cuts of Meat, Including Pork, to 145 °F. Retreived from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/News_&_Events/NR_052411_01/index.asp 2012-07-31

US Department of Agriculture. 2011. Is it done yet? Retreived from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/is_it_done_yet/Brochure_Text/index.asp 2012-07-31

Date modified: 2012-07-31

Food Safety Information

866 503 7638 (Canada)
519 824 4120 ext. 52087
fsnrsn@uoguelph.ca