There are essentially four types of buttermaking processes:
- traditional batch churning from 25- 35% mf. cream;
- continuous flotation churning from 30-50% mf. cream;
- the concentration process whereby "plastic" cream at 82% mf. is separated from 35% mf. cream at 55oC and then this oil-in-water emulsion cream is inverted to a water-in-oil emulsion butter with no further draining of buttermilk;
- the anhydrous milkfat process whereby water, SNF, and salt are emulsified into butter oil in a process very similar to margarine manufacture.
An optimum churning temperature must be determined for each type of process but is mainly dependent on the mean melting point and melting range of the lipids, as discussed above, i.e., 7-10oC in summer and 10 - 13oC in winter. If churning temperature is too warm or if the thermal cream aging cycle permits too much liquid fat, then a soft greasy texture results; if too cold or too much solid fat, then butter becomes too brittle.