Flavour Control

  • milk heating and clarification treatments which determine non-starter bacteria present in the milk
  • types of cultures and coagulating enzymes
  • all cooking and curd handling procedures have specific effects on the types of ripening agents (bacteria and enzymes) which remain to ripen the cheese; especially in cheese such as Swiss where the composition and functions of the culture are more complex
  • pH at draining again important because it determines the distribution of plasmin and rennin between the curd and the whey
  • plasmin is the principal milk protease: it prefers neutral to slightly alkaline pH and is more soluble at low pH; therefore, cheese which are dipped at high pH have higher retention and activity of plasmin (eg., in Swiss protein breakdown during ripening is due to plasmin)
  • calf rennet is more soluble at higher pH but more active at lower pH; therefore, an acid cheese such as Feta or Cheshire, has more rennet activity than Cheddar
  • the solubility of microbial rennets is independent of pH