In addition to lactic acid cultures many special or secondary cultures are used to promote specific ripening (both flavour and texture) characteristics.
- Large holes: Propioni bacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermaniee
- White moulds: Penicillium camembertii, P. caseiocolum, and P. candidum
- Blue/green moulds: Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium glaucum
- yeasts and moulds.
- Various coryneform bacteria including Brevibacterium linens, several species of micrococci, and several species of Staphylocci.
- Ripening adjuncts:
- Bacterial or yeast cultures added in addition to the regular lactic acid cultures.
- Attenuated cultures which are not intended to grow but only to contribute their enzymes.
- Species of Lactobacilli and pediococci which are intended to grow during cheese ripening and contribute enzymes.