Evaporation refers to the process of heating liquid to the boiling point to remove water as vapour. Because milk is heat sensitive, heat damage can be minimized by evaporation under vacuum to reduce the boiling point. The basic components of this process consist of: 

  • heat-exchanger
  • vacuum
  • vapour separator
  • condenser 

The heat exchanger is enclosed in a large chamber and transfers heat from the heating medium, usually low pressure steam, to the product usually via indirect contact surfaces. The vacuum keeps the product temperature low and the difference in temperatures high. The vapour separator removes entrained solids from the vapours, channelling solids back to the heat exchanger and the vapours out to thecondenser. It is sometimes a part of the actual heat exchanger, especially in older vacuum pans, but more likely a separate unit in newer installations. The condenser condenses the vapours from inside the heat exchanger and may act as the vacuum source.



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