# XII. Course Descriptions

## Physics

*Department of Physics*

PHYS*1000 An Introduction to Mechanics F (3-3) [0.50] | |
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This is a course for physical science students which develops the concepts of mechanics as applied to translational and rotational kinematics and dynamics, equilibrium of rigid bodies, oscillations, gravitation, special relativity, and fluid statics and dynamics. Normally this is part of the two-course unit PHYS*1000 and PHYS*1010. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of 4U Physics, Grade 12 Physics, PHYS*1020), 4U or Grade 12 Calculus |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*1080 |

PHYS*1010 Introductory Electricity and Magnetism W (3-3) [0.50] | |
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This is a course for physical science students on the phenomena of electromagnetism, waves and introductory quantum physics. Topics include electric charges and fields, electric potential, capacitance, magnetic fields, electric circuits, waves, electromagnetic waves, quantization of light and other aspects of introductory quantum physics. Normally this is part of the two-course unit PHYS*1000 and PHYS*1010. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*1080 or MATH*1200), (1 of 4U Physics, Grade 12 Physics, PHYS*1020) |

PHYS*1020 Introductory Physics F,W (3-2) [0.50] |
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This course stresses the fundamental properties of particles and waves, designed for students without 4U Physics or equivalent. Topics include: the motion of particles, force, field, momentum, energy and associated conservation laws; basic interactions between particles; properties of waves. It is expected that students will have completed Grade 11 or 3U Physics and at least 1 4U mathematics credit. This course is intended only for students who require the equivalent of 4U Physics in order to proceed to PHYS*1000, PHYS*1010, PHYS*1070, PHYS*1080, PHYS*1130, PHYS*2040. Students may not take this course for credit if they have passed 4U or OAC Physics (or equivalent). (Also offered through Distance Education format.) |

PHYS*1070 Introductory Physics for Life Sciences F,W (3-3) [0.50] | |
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Physics of matter and energy at the macroscopic and microscopic levels, with special emphasis on topics of importance to the biological sciences. Topics include properties of waves, acoustics and hearing, optical systems and vision, quantum nature of radiation and its interaction with biomolecules, electricity, high energy radiation and radioactivity. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of 4U Physics, OAC Physics, PHYS*1020), one 4U or OAC Mathematics course |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*1130 |

PHYS*1080 Physics for Life Sciences F,W (3-3) [0.50] | |
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This is a complementary course to PHYS*1070 or PHYS*1130 with emphasis on some aspects of classical physics important in the biological and environmental sciences. Topics include mechanics and applications to anatomical problems, fluid statics and dynamics, molecular motion, diffusion, osmosis, and heat. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of 4U Physics, Grade 12 Physics, PHYS*1020), one 4U or Grade 12 Mathematics course |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*1000 |

PHYS*1130 Physics with Applications W (3-3) [0.50] | |
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This course is for engineering and environmental science students, and uses some calculus in analytic problem-solving. Topics include simple harmonic motion, waves, acoustics, optics, properties and absorption of electromagnetic radiation, blackbody radiation, solar spectrum and flux, electric field and potential, DC circuits, power transmission, nuclear processes, and radioactivity. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*1080 or MATH*1200), (1 of 4U Physics, Grade 12 Physics, PHYS*1020) |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*1070 |

PHYS*1600 Contemporary Astronomy F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course is designed for non-science students. Emphasis will be on the interdisciplinary and contemporary aspects of astronomy with the object of providing a perspective of our place in the physical universe. Topics will include the solar system, stars and stellar evolution, pulsars, black holes, quasars and cosmology. Students are encouraged to suggest and participate in discussion on items of special interest. (Also offered through Distance Education format.) | |

Restriction(s): | Students with standing in any other 1000 level course credit in physics (except PHYS*1020, PHYS*1810) may not use this course for credit. B.Sc. students may not take this course for credit. |

PHYS*1810 Physics of Music F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course is designed for arts and social science students with an interest or background in music. The fundamentals of vibrations and waves will be introduced and applied to a study of archetypal instruments. The psychoacoustic basis of pitch and loudness will be discussed. Students who have standing in any 1000 level physics course, except PHYS*1020 or PHYS*1600, may enrol in this course only if they are completing an honours or general B.A. program in Music. In this case, permission of the instructor is required. (Also listed as MUSC*1090.) (Offered in even-numbered years.) | |

Equate(s): | MUSC*1090 |

PHYS*2030 Biophysics of Excitable Cells W (3-1) [0.50] | |
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An intermediate biophysics course with special emphasis on the physical properties of nerve cells and of biological transducers such as the ear and the eye. | |

Prerequisite(s): | 1.00 credits in physics (excluding PHYS*1020, PHYS*1600, PHYS*1810) |

PHYS*2260 Quantum Physics S,W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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The course investigates and describes the properties of atoms, molecules and nuclei in terms of phenomena of quantum physics. Topics include wave properties of matter, particle properties of electromagnetic radiation, uncertainty principle, operators and eigenvalue equations, elementary angular momentum, spin and elementary quantum mechanics. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of MATH*1000, MATH*1080, MATH*1200), (PHYS*1010 or PHYS*1070), (MATH*2150 or MATH*2160) |

Restriction(s): | NANO*2100 |

PHYS*2310 Mechanics I F (4-0) [0.50] | |
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This course continues building the foundation in mechanics begun in the first year and is intended for students proceeding to advanced studies in the physical sciences. Topics include analysis of experimental uncertainties (errors), one, two and three dimensional motion, damped and forced harmonic oscillator, gravitation and orbital motion. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*1210+ or MATH*2080), (PHYS*1000*+ or PHYS*1080) (+ preferred) |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*2440 |

PHYS*2320 Mechanics II W (4-0) [0.50] | |
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This course is a continuation of PHYS*2310. Topics include special relativity, noninertial reference frames, dynamics of systems of particles, and rigid body dynamics. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*2310 |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*2450 |

PHYS*2330 Electricity and Magnetism I F (4-0) [0.50] | |
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This course continues building the foundation in electricity and magnetism begun in the first year and is intended for students proceeding to advanced studies in the physical sciences. Topics include vector calculus, electric fields, potential, electric work and energy, Gauss's Law, Poisson's and Laplace's equations, capacitors, D.C. circuits, transients and dielectric materials. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*1210+ or MATH*2080), (1 of PHYS*1010*+, PHYS*1070, PHYS*1130) (+ preferred) |

Co-requisite(s): | PHYS*2310 |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*2460 |

PHYS*2340 Electricity and Magnetism II W (4-0) [0.50] | |
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This course is a continuation of PHYS*2330. Topics include magnetic forces and fields, the Biot-Savart equation, Ampere's Law, magnetic induction, LRC transients, A.C. circuits and magnetic materials. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*2330 |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*2470 |

PHYS*2440 Mechanics I F (3-3) [0.75] | |
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This course and the following one, PHYS*2450, continue building the foundation in mechanics begun in the first year. These courses are intended for students proceeding to advanced studies in the physical sciences. Topics include analysis of experimental uncertainties (errors), one, two and three dimensional motion, damped and forced harmonic oscillator, gravitation and orbital motion. The laboratory work requires a formal treatment of error analysis, as well as computer programming for data analysis. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of MATH*1210+, MATH*2080), (PHYS*1000+ or PHYS*1080) (+preferred) |

PHYS*2450 Mechanics II W (3-3) [0.75] | |
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This course is a continuation of PHYS*2440. Topics include special relativity, noninertial reference frames, dynamics of systems of particles, and rigid body dynamics. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*2440 |

PHYS*2460 Electricity and Magnetism I F (3-3) [0.75] | |
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This course and the following one, PHYS*2470, continue building the foundation in electricity and magnetism begun in the first year. These two courses are intended for students proceeding to advanced studies in the physical sciences. Topics include vector calculus, electric fields, potential, electric work and energy, Gauss's Law, Poisson's and Laplace's equations, capacitors, D.C. circuits, transients and dielectric materials. The laboratory work requires a formal treatment of error analysis, as well as computer programming for data analysis. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of PHYS*1010+, PHYS*1070, PHYS*1130), (MATH*1210+ or MATH*2080) (+preferred) |

Co-requisite(s): | PHYS*2440 |

PHYS*2470 Electricity and Magnetism II W (3-3) [0.75] | |
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This course is a continuation of PHYS*2460. Topics include magnetic forces and fields, the Biot-Savart equation, Ampere's Law, magnetic induction, LRC transients, A.C. circuits and magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations and the propagation of electromagnetic waves in vacuum. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*2460 |

PHYS*2550 Radiation and the Environment F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course reviews radiations which occur in the environment and their effects on materials and living systems. These include x-radiation, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio-frequency emissions; acoustical and ultrasonic radiation; and alpha, beta, and gamma radiation from radioactive material. (Offered in even-numbered years.) | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of PHYS*1010, PHYS*1070, PHYS*1130), 0.50 credits in mathematics at the 1000 level (excluding MATH*1050) |

PHYS*2600 General Astronomy F (3-2) [0.50] | |
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An introduction to astronomy, this course covers the solar system, the sun, stellar and galactic structure. (Offered in odd-numbered years.) | |

Prerequisite(s): | 0.50 credits in physics at the 1000 level (excluding PHYS*1600, PHYS*1810), 0.50 credit in mathematics at the 1000 level |

PHYS*3080 Energy W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course covers energy resources and the production, transmission, interconversion, consumption and waste of energy in the industrial society. Emphasis is placed on environmental impact and human safety. Topics include fossil fuels, nuclear fission and fusion, wind and solar power, the hydrogen economy, and conservation strategies. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (PHYS*1000 or PHYS*1080), (1 of PHYS*1010, PHYS*1070, PHYS*1130), (1 of MATH*1000, MATH*1080, MATH*1200) |

PHYS*3100 Electronics F (3-3) [0.75] | |
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This course consists of an introduction to network analysis, the physics of semiconductors, p-n junctions, transistors and integrated circuits. Other topics include: amplifier properties, signal processing using operational amplifiers, an introduction to digital electronics including counters and registers, as well as circuits to convert analog signals to digital and vice-versa. The laboratory illustrates lecture topics, and a major component consists of techniques to interface a computer to integrated circuits for data acquisition. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*2340 or PHYS*2470 |

PHYS*3220 Waves and Optics W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course demonstrates the importance of waves in many areas of physics, with an emphasis on waves in optics. The concept of waves is presented within the framework of the mathematics of periodic functions, with discussions of normal modes in oscillatory systems involving both stationary and propagating modes, and Fourier analyses using both series and integral forms. Examples will emphasize applications involving visible light waves such as polarization, interference and diffraction. In addition, other electromagnetic waves and sound waves will be discussed. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*2310 or PHYS*2440 |

PHYS*3230 Quantum Mechanics I F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course consists of a formal treatment of quantum mechanics. Topics include wave packets and free particle motion, the Schrodinger equation, harmonic oscillator, piecewise constant potentials, central forces and angular momentum, and the hydrogen atom. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (CHEM*2070 or PHYS*2260), MATH*2160, (MATH*2170 or MATH*2270), (PHYS*2340 or PHYS*2470) |

PHYS*3240 Statistical Physics I S,F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course is an introduction to statistical physics including thermodynamics and statistical mechanics of equilibrium phenomena. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (1 of PHYS*2260, PHYS*2310, PHYS*2440) |

Co-requisite(s): | MATH*2200 |

PHYS*3400 Advanced Mechanics W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course covers Lagrangian mechanics and Hamiltonian mechanics. Topics include least action principles, Poisson brackets, Liouville's theorem, Hamilton- Jacobi theory, the transition to quantum mechanics and introduction to non-linear dynamics. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*2170 or MATH*2270), (PHYS*2320 or PHYS*2450) |

PHYS*3510 Intermediate Laboratory W (0-6) [0.50] | |
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This modular course consists of experiments in modern and classical physics. Modules include laboratory instrumentation employing computers, modern physics, waves and optics, molecular physics, biophysics, and solid state physics. | |

Prerequisite(s): | [PHYS*2450 or (NANO*2100, PHYS*2320)], PHYS*3100 |

PHYS*4001 Research in Physics F (0-6) [0.50] | |
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This course is the first part of the two-semester course PHYS*4001/2. Refer to PHYS*4001/2 for the course description. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3510 |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*4510; Instructor consent required. |

PHYS*4001/2 Research in Physics F-W (0-6) [1.00] | |
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This is a two-semester (F-W) course in which students apply their knowledge and skills through independent research of an experimental or theoretical nature within physics. Students will be required to present their results in both oral and written reports. Students must make arrangements with a faculty supervisor and obtain approval of the course co-ordinator before course selection. Approval of the course co-ordinator will only be granted upon receipt of a completed registration form, available from the co-ordinator during the course selection period. This is a two-semester course offered over consecutive semesters. When you select it, you must select PHYS*4001 in the Fall semester and PHYS*4002 in the Winter semester. A grade will not be assigned to PHYS*4001 until PHYS*4002 has been completed. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3510 |

Restriction(s): | PHYS*4510; Instructor consent required. |

PHYS*4002 Research in Physics W (0-6) [0.50] | |
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This course is the second part of the two-semester course PHYS*4001/2. Refer to PHYS*4001/2 for the course description. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*4001 |

PHYS*4040 Quantum Mechanics II W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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A second course in quantum mechanics. Topics include spin, linear vector spaces, two-level systems, quantum dynamics, rotations and angular momentum, time dependent perturbation theory, Born approximation. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3230 |

PHYS*4120 Atomic and Molecular Physics F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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The application of quantum theory to atomic and molecular structure, and the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and atoms and simple molecules. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3240, PHYS*4040 |

PHYS*4130 Subatomic Physics W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course surveys the field of subatomic physics from radioactive emanations to conjectured subunits of nucleons. Topics include quark models; strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions; isospin, strangeness, conservation laws and symmetry principles; systematics of nuclear properties, nuclear radioactivity, nuclear models and reactions. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3230 |

PHYS*4150 Solid State Physics W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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Bonding in solids, thermal and electrical properties of solids, energy bands, imperfections in solids, properties of semiconductors and insulators. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3220, PHYS*3230, PHYS*3240 Recommended: PHYS*4240 |

Co-requisite(s): | PHYS*4040 (if not taken as a pre-requisite) |

PHYS*4180 Advanced Electromagnetic Theory F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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This course covers Maxwell's equation, Lorentz-force law, conservation of charge, and conservation of energy (Poynting's theorem). In addition, the course will discuss potentials, gauge transformations, wave equations, and multipole expansions as well as Green's functions for the Poisson and wave equations. Additional topics include electrostatics and magnetostatics (including boundary-value problems), motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields, and propagation and generation of electromagnetic waves. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (PHYS*2340 or PHYS*2470) |

PHYS*4240 Statistical Physics II F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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A continuation of PHYS*3240 including a discussion of the grand canonical distribution, quantum statistics, and transport theory. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3230, PHYS*3240 |

PHYS*4300 Inquiry in Physics W (0-6) [0.50] | |
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In this course, students will undertake independent study of the scientific literature and learn how to communicate scientific research effectively. Students will prepare seminars and written reports on approved topics drawn from current research initiatives in physics. | |

Prerequisite(s): | 7.00 PHYS credits. |

PHYS*4500 Advanced Physics Laboratory F (0-6) [0.50] | |
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This is a modular course for students in any physics-related major in which techniques of nuclear, solid state and molecular physics will be studied. | |

Prerequisite(s): | [PHYS*2450 or (NANO*2100, PHYS*2320)], (PHYS*3100 or XSEN*4110) |

PHYS*4540 Molecular Biophysics W (3-0) [0.50] | |
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Physical methods of determining macromolecular structure: energetics, intramolecular and intermolecular forces, with applications to lamellar structures, information storage, DNA and RNA, recognition and rejection of foreign molecules. | |

Prerequisite(s): | 0.50 credits in biochemistry, (CHEM*3860 or PHYS*3230) |

PHYS*4560 Biophysical Methods F (3-0) [0.50] | |
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An introduction to physical techniques to determine the structure of macromolecules and macromolecular structures of biological interest. The techniques include: differential calorimetry, X-ray and neutron scattering, electron microscopy, Raman and infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron spin resonance. Applications of these techniques in the study of biological membranes will be emphasized. Students taking this course should already have taken PHYS*4240 or be taking this course concurrently. | |

Prerequisite(s): | PHYS*3220, PHYS*4040 |

Co-requisite(s): | PHYS*4240 (if not taken as a prerequisite) |

PHYS*4910 Advanced Topics in Physics I U (3-0) [0.50] | |
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The content of this course is determined by the interests of the students. Possible topics include fluid mechanics, theory of elastic solids, general relativity, astrophysics, and chaos. This course is not offered every year. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*2150 or MATH*2160), (MATH*2170 or MATH*2270), (PHYS*2320 or PHYS*2450), (PHYS*2340 or PHYS*2470) |

PHYS*4920 Advanced Topics in Physics II U (3-0) [0.50] | |
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The content of this course is determined by the interests of the students. Possible topics include fluid mechanics, theory of elastic solids, general relativity, astrophysics, and chaos. This course is not offered every year. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*2150 or MATH*2160), (MATH*2170 or MATH*2270), (PHYS*2320 or PHYS*2450), (PHYS*2340 or PHYS*2470) |

PHYS*4930 Advanced Topics in Physics III U (3-0) [0.50] | |
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The content of this course is determined by the interests of the students. Possible topics include fluid mechanics, theory of elastic solids, general relativity, astrophysics, and chaos. This course is not offered every year. | |

Prerequisite(s): | (MATH*2150 or MATH*2160), (MATH*2170 or MATH*2270), (PHYS*2320 or PHYS*2450), (PHYS*2340 or PHYS*2470) |