Standardization of milk for cheese making

Standardization refers to the practice of adjusting the composition of cheese milk to maximize economic return from the milk components while maintaining both cheese quality and cheese composition specifications. Composition specifications may be self imposed (eg., low fat cheese) or imposed by government standards of identity. In Canada, standards of identity are defined for 46 cheese varieties. These standards only include limits for maximum moisture and minimum fat so they do little to standardize other cheese characteristics. For example, American Mozzarella is made by a different process and has different properties than Italian stretch Mozzarella, but by Canadian regulations American Mozzarella can be called Mozzarella provided it contains less than 52% moisture and more than 20% fat.

Table 6.1.  Some cheese varieties with some characteristics, composition and suggested ratio of protein/fat in standardized  milk. 

Fat and moisture levels for most varieties correspond to definitions given in Canadian regulations.

 

 

 

 

 

Cheese Target Composition

Milk

Yield

 

Texture

Washing

Salting

Rind

Fat

Moist

FDM

MNFS

Prot/Fat

% w/w

Alpina (Stella Alpina)

Semi-soft

Maybe warm

B or DS

Smear

27

46

50.0

63.0

0.90

11.5

Asiago

Firm to hard

None

B

Dry

30.0

40.0

50.0

57.1

0.93

10.1

Baby Edam

Firm

Warm wash

B

None

21.0

47.0

39.6

59.5

1.56

8.7

Baby Gouda

Firm

Warm wash

B

None

26.0

45.0

47.3

60.8

1.15

9.7

Blue

Soft to semi-soft

None

DC&DS

Smear or none

27.0

47.0

50.9

64.4

0.87

11.9

Bra

Firm to hard

None

B or DS

Dry

26.0

36.0

40.6

48.6

1.40

7.6

Brick

Semi-soft to firm

Usually warm

DC or DS

Smear or none

29.0

42.0

50.0

59.2

1.04

9.7

Brie

Soft

No

DS

Mould

23.0

54.0

50.0

70.1

0.86

14.0

Butterkase (Butter)

Semi-soft

Maybe warm

B

Smear

27.0

46.0

50.0

63.0

0.90

11.5

Caciocavallo

Firm to hard

Hot Stretch

B

Dry

24.0

45.0

43.6

59.2

1.17

9.8

Camembert

Soft

None

DS

Mould

22.0

56.0

50.0

71.8

0.86

14.7

Canadian Muenster

Semi-soft

Maybe warm

B or DS

Smear

27.0

46.0

50.0

63.0

0.90

11.5

Cheddar

Firm

None

DC

None

31.0

39.0

50.8

56.5

0.91

10.0

Cheshire

Firm

None

DC

None

30.0

44.0

53.6

62.9

0.79

11.9

Colby

Firm

Cold wash

DC

None

29.0

42.0

50.0

59.2

1.03

9.7

Coulommiers

Soft

None

DS

Mould

22.0

56.0

50.0

71.8

0.85

14.8

Danbo

Firm, small eyes

None

B,DS or DC

Smear or none

25.0

46.0

46.3

61.3

1.04

10.6

Edam

Firm

Warm wash

B

Dry or none

22.0

46.0

40.7

59.0

1.50

8.7

Elbo

Firm

None

DS or B

Dry or none

25.0

46.0

46.3

61.3

1.04

10.6

Emmentaler

Firm with eyes

None

B

Dry or none

27.0

40.0

45.0

54.8

1.13

9.1

Esrom

Semi-soft

Maybe warm

DS or B

Smear

23.0

50.0

46.0

64.9

1.04

11.5

Farmers

Firm

Cold wash

DC

None

27.0

44.0

48.2

60.3

1.11

9.7

Feta

Soft

None

DS

None

22.0

55.0

48.9

70.5

0.90

14.0

Fontina

Semi-soft to firm

Maybe warm

DS or B

Light smear

27.0

46.0

50.0

63.0

0.90

11.5

Fynbo

Firm,small eyes

?

B or DC

Dry

25.0

46.0

46.3

61.3

1.05

10.5

Gouda

Firm, small eyes

Yes

B

None

28.0

43.0

49.1

59.7

1.07

9.7

Guyere

Firm, eyes

No

B&DS

Light smear

28.0

38.0

45.2

52.8

1.14

8.7

Havarti

Semi-soft

Warm wash

B or DS

Smear or none

23.0

50.0

46.0

64.9

1.19

10.5

Jack

Semi-soft

Cold wash

DC

None

25.0

50.0

50.0

66.7

1.02

11.4

Kasseri

Firm to hard

Hot stretch

B

Dry

25.0

44.0

44.6

58.7

1.13

9.8

Limburger

Soft to semi-soft

Maybe warm

DS or B

Heavy smear

25.0

50.0

50.0

66.7

0.88

12.6

Maribo

Firm, small eyes

None

B or DS

Dry or none

26.0

43.0

45.6

58.1

1.09

9.8

Montasio

Firm

Usually warm

DS or B

Dry

28.0

40.0

46.7

55.6

1.19

8.7

Monterey

Firm

Cold wash

DC

None

28.0

44.0

50.0

61.1

1.04

10.0

Mozzarella (Italian)

Semi-soft to firm

Hot stretch

B

None

20.0

52.0

41.7

65.0

1.22

11.1

Mozzarella (Canadian)

Firm

Cold wash

DC

None

20.0

52.0

41.7

65.0

1.22

11.1

Muenster

Semi-soft

Maybe warm

B or DS

Light smear

25.0

50.0

50.0

66.7

0.88

12.6

Parmesam

Hard, grating

None

B&DS

Dry

22.0

32.0

32.4

41.0

2.02

6.1

Part Skim Mozz

Semi-soft to firm

Hot stretch

B

None

15.0

52.0

31.3

61.2

1.90

9.1

Part Skim Pizza

Semi-soft to firm

Hot stretch

B

None

15.0

48.0

28.8

56.5

2.20

7.9

Pizza

Semi-soft to firm

Hot stretch

B

None

20.0

48.0

38.5

60.0

1.42

9.5

Provolone

Firm

Hot stretch

B

None

24.0

45.0

43.6

59.2

1.17

9.8

Romano

Hard

None

B&DS

Dry or none

25.0

34.0

37.9

45.3

1.58

7.0

Samsoe

Firm, few eyes

None

B&DS

Dry or none

26.0

44.0

46.4

59.5

1.05

10.1

Tilsiter (Tilsit)

Firm

Usually warm

B or DS

Smear or none

25.0

45.0

45.5

60.0

1.08

10.2

Tybo

Firm, few eyes

None

B

Dry or none

25.0

46.0

46.3

61.3

1.04

10.6

                       

 

CONSTANTS,  ASSUMPTIONS AND LEGEND

1.  All cheese composition and yield values are in units of percent by weight--including both cheese and standardized milk.

2.  Estimation of yield and protein/fat ratios are based on principles and yield equations described by D.B. Emmons, C.A. Ernstrom, C. Lacrois and P. Verret.  J. Dairy Science 73(1990):1365.

3.  Calculations based on fresh milk of 3.90% fat and 3.20% protein and assuming standarization was by removing 35% cream from the same fresh milk

4.  Whey solids in moisture was assumed to be 6.5% except for washed types when a value of 3.2% was used.  For the purpose of yield calculations, pasta filata types (hot stretch) were considered to be unwashed.  75% of cheese moisture was considered available as a solvent for whey solids.

5.  Conversion factors:

Proportion of fat transferred from milk to cheese was   0.93

Amount of casein + minerals transferred to cheese was  casein x 1.018

Casein number was 76.5

Washing:

'warm' means washing at temperatures near normal cooking temperatures (32-40oC)

'cold'  means wash water at  temperature less than 200C is used to wash and cool the curd

'maybe warm'   means that the cheese may or may not be washed with warm water

'hot stretch' means the cheese is heated and worked in hot water (70-800C) as in Pasta Filata types.

Salting:  B = brine salted;  DS = dry salted on cheese surface;  DC = curd dry salted before hooping.

FDM = fat as percentage by weight of cheese solids;    MNFS = moisture as percentage of non-fat substance in cheese.

Prot/Fat  = ratio of protein to fat in standardized cheese milk.