Table 1.1

Table 1.1 Some properties of cheese categorized according to type of coagulation and procedures used for pH and moisture control. After Hill, 1995, Chemical species in cheese, Chemistry of Structure-Function Relationships in Cheese, Plenum Press, NY.

  Varieties Coagulation2 MNFS3 pH4 Calcium mM/Kg SNF  
Acid Coagulated Cottage, quark, cream cheese Acid coagulation at pH 4.6-4.8

72-80%, aw .980-.995

Controlled by cooking and washing treatments


Inhibition of culture by low pH, high temperature cooking or cooling, and/or washing

50-350 Consumed fresh, short shelf life
Heat-acid Coagulated Indian Paneer and Chhana, Ricotta, Requeson. Useful as cooking cheese Heat denatured whey proteins are co-precipitated with caseins by acid. Whey proteins inhibit melting 75-84% Increases with whey protein content, decreases with cooking after acidification 5.0-5.8; Amount of acidulant added. 3-6% lactose in cheese due to absence of fermentation   Normally consumed fresh, limited shelf life unless hot packed, pickled, or packed in sugar syrup
Unripened: rennet coagulated Some Latin American, middle eastern and European varieties. Useful as cooking cheese Rennet++, Little or no culture, cutting near endogenous pH 60-80% Controlled by cooking, stirring out and draining conditions. Syneresis often occurs in the package 5.8-6.6; Little or no culture. High pH prevents melting   Consumed fresh. High pH limits shelf life
Soft Ripened: High Acid Feta, Camembert, Blue Rennett+++, culture+++; ripening time+++, cutting at pH < 6.5 60-70%, aw .96-.99

Syneresis induced by acid development and by salting


Acid inhibition of culture, salting and cooling

400-600 2-8 weeks
Semi-hard Cheese: Washed Gouda, Edam, Colby, Havarti, Montasio and many others Rennet++, culture-+, ripening time++, Cutting at pH < 6.6 55-65, aw .95-.97

Controlled by cooking, temperature of wash water, rate of acid development, curd handling, salting treatments


Washing to remove lactose

500-700 2 weeks - 9 months
Hard Cheese: Low Temperature Cheddar, Provolone Rennet++, culture++, ripening time++, cutting at pH < 6.6 52-60, aw .94-.96

Controlled by cooking, curd handling, rate of acid development and salting

Rate of acid development and moisture control determines residual lactose; draining pH is critical 500-700 1-24+ months
Hard Cheese: High Temperature Swiss types, Italian types such as parmesan Rennet+, culture+, ripening+ (little or none for Swiss), cutting at pH near 6.6 39-52%

Controlled mainly by high temperature cooking (52-55C)

Acidity and moisture determine residual lactose; draining pH is critical 600-800 1-24+ months

1 Representive data from various sources is given to define broad ranges and trends only. 
2 '+' symbols indicate amounts of rennet and culture and ripening time relative to other categories.
3 Moisture in non-fat substance.