Table 1.1 Some properties of cheese categorized according to type of coagulation and procedures used for pH and moisture control. After Hill, 1995, Chemical species in cheese, Chemistry of Structure-Function Relationships in Cheese, Plenum Press, NY.
|Varieties||Coagulation2||MNFS3||pH4||Calcium mM/Kg SNF|
|Acid Coagulated||Cottage, quark, cream cheese||Acid coagulation at pH 4.6-4.8||
72-80%, aw .980-.995
Controlled by cooking and washing treatments
Inhibition of culture by low pH, high temperature cooking or cooling, and/or washing
|50-350||Consumed fresh, short shelf life|
|Heat-acid Coagulated||Indian Paneer and Chhana, Ricotta, Requeson. Useful as cooking cheese||Heat denatured whey proteins are co-precipitated with caseins by acid. Whey proteins inhibit melting||75-84% Increases with whey protein content, decreases with cooking after acidification||5.0-5.8; Amount of acidulant added. 3-6% lactose in cheese due to absence of fermentation||Normally consumed fresh, limited shelf life unless hot packed, pickled, or packed in sugar syrup|
|Unripened: rennet coagulated||Some Latin American, middle eastern and European varieties. Useful as cooking cheese||Rennet++, Little or no culture, cutting near endogenous pH||60-80% Controlled by cooking, stirring out and draining conditions. Syneresis often occurs in the package||5.8-6.6; Little or no culture. High pH prevents melting||Consumed fresh. High pH limits shelf life|
|Soft Ripened: High Acid||Feta, Camembert, Blue||Rennett+++, culture+++; ripening time+++, cutting at pH < 6.5||60-70%, aw .96-.99
Syneresis induced by acid development and by salting
Acid inhibition of culture, salting and cooling
|Semi-hard Cheese: Washed||Gouda, Edam, Colby, Havarti, Montasio and many others||Rennet++, culture-+, ripening time++, Cutting at pH < 6.6||55-65, aw .95-.97
Controlled by cooking, temperature of wash water, rate of acid development, curd handling, salting treatments
Washing to remove lactose
|500-700||2 weeks - 9 months|
|Hard Cheese: Low Temperature||Cheddar, Provolone||Rennet++, culture++, ripening time++, cutting at pH < 6.6||52-60, aw .94-.96
Controlled by cooking, curd handling, rate of acid development and salting
|Rate of acid development and moisture control determines residual lactose; draining pH is critical||500-700||1-24+ months|
|Hard Cheese: High Temperature||Swiss types, Italian types such as parmesan||Rennet+, culture+, ripening+ (little or none for Swiss), cutting at pH near 6.6||39-52%
Controlled mainly by high temperature cooking (52-55C)
|Acidity and moisture determine residual lactose; draining pH is critical||600-800||1-24+ months|
1 Representive data from various sources is given to define broad ranges and trends only.
2 '+' symbols indicate amounts of rennet and culture and ripening time relative to other categories.
3 Moisture in non-fat substance.