Gouda cheese originated in the Netherlands and is similar to Edam. Normally Gouda has a higher fat content than Edam but fat in dry matter does vary from 30 - 50%. In Canada, Gouda cheese must contain a minimum of 28% fat (49% fat on dry matter basis) and a maximum of 43% moisture. Gouda is made in round or block forms and the cheese vary in weight from 600 g to 20 kg. A gas-forming culture is used to induce eye formation.
1. Standardize milk to protein/fat ratio of 1.07 and pasteurize.
2. 1 - 2 ml of annatto per 1000 kg of milk may be added during the winter months.
3. Add 0.75% starter culture. Mixtures of Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostic cremoris and Streptococcus diacetylactis are recommended. Ripen until an increase of 0.005 - 0.01 in titratable acidity is achieved.
4. Measure 190 ml rennet/1000 kg of milk. Dilute the rennet with 10 volumes of water and add the mixture to the milk.
5. When curd cuts cleanly, cut curd into 0.5 - 1.0 cm cubes taking 10 - 15 minutes. Stir curd to float in whey for an additional 20 - 30 minutes. Whey pH should be 6.4 - 6.45.
6. Run off one-third of whey and slowly add water at 60C to give final temperature of 36 - 38C. The volume of water should be 20 - 25% of the amount of milk. Add the water slowly during 15 - 20 min with continual stirring. Continue stirring for another 15 min. after all the water is added.
7. Allow curd to settle, and press under the whey by covering the curd with steel plates for at least 10 min. In commercial practice this is accomplished by moving the curd and some of the whey onto a press table.
8. When curd is consolidated under the plates, drain the whey and cut to fit cloth-lined hoops. Press at 14 psi for 5 - 8 hrs. with occasional turning. After first turning increase pressure from 14 - 28 psi. The pH after pressing should be 5.3 - 5.5.
9. Immerse in 20% salt brine for periods as indicated below. The pH should be 5.15 -5.25.
|Edam 1.5 - 3 kg||3 days|
|Gouda 0.5 kg||20 hours|
|Gouda 1 kg||1 1/2 days|
|Gouda 10 kg||4 1/2 days|
|Gouda 20 kg||7 days|
10. Pack in plastic film and incubate at 15C, 4 - 6 weeks. Then store at 100C for 6 - 12 months.
The pH of Gouda cheese increases during ripening. At 8 weeks the pH should be 5.3 - 5.5.