Dr. Stephen Crawford
Office: SCIE 2474
B.Sc. - Guelph 1985
M.Sc. - Queen's 1987
Ph.D. - Guelph 1993
My research program is comprised of three project areas established by the Nawash-UofG Assistant Professorship in Fisheries Ecology and Management. As outlined in the Faculty Partnership, the long-term goals of this collaborative research program are as follows:
- To investigate key ecological uncertainties related to dynamics of harvested fish populations in the Great Lakes;
- To develop and evaluate Adaptive Resource Management as a basis for Great Lakes fisheries management; and
- To improve relationships between Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge and Western Science, especially with reference Great Lakes ecology.
These goals have been designed to ensure that the First Nations fisheries on the Great Lakes benefit from an effective mix of scientific rigour, participatory decision-making, and cross-cultural communication of ecological knowledge. With these research tools available to them, First Nations such as Nawash can ensure that they are protecting their fisheries and associated Aboriginal and Treaty Rights for future generations.
Parsimonious modeling of coregonine populations and their fisheries
This project investigates the life history and ecology of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and bloater chub (C. hoyi), and the commercial fisheries (Native and non-Native) they support. The purpose of this research project is to provide parsimonious mathematical models for describing hypothesized states of population abundance, age structure and growth. Specifically, these models represent hypothesized effects of
- intra- and inter-specific competition and
- predation, to provide managers with probability-based tools that predict responses to harvest in a multi-species ecosystem context.
Model development extends from the foundation of population analyses that Nawash has developed for their fisheries over the past 5 years. We will continue to develop empirically-based simulation models and probabilistic risk assessments of lake whitefish and bloater populations, based on large fisheries/environmental data sets. It is important to note that these models are being directly incorporated as primary tools for decision analysis and adaptive management in the Lake Huron DAAM research (Project 2) described below.
Decision Analysis Adaptive Management (DAAM) for Lake Huron fisheries
Major controversies regarding Lake Huron fisheries have emerged from key ecological uncertainties such as coregonine stock structure, TAC determination, lake trout rehabilitation, and the ecological effects of stocking exotic salmonines (Crawford 2001, Crawford et al. 2003). In response, Nawash and Ontario collaborated with Profs. Tom Nudds and Mike Jones (2003) on integration of Decision Analysis (DA; making making decisions in the face of uncertainty) and Adaptive Management (AM; reducing key uncertainties by treating management as experimentation). Since its inception, DAAM has been proposed for Lake Ontario anguillid fisheries, and has been formally adopted as the basis for a two-year UofG post-doctoral research program (funded by the Ontario Commercial Fisheries’ Association) on Lake Erie walleye and perch fisheries. The objective of this research project is to extend development of DA and AM to fisheries management generally, using Lake Huron as a study system.
Relationships between Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge and Western Science
The purpose of this project is to provide a common language for mutual exploration of the similarities and differences between Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge and Western Science, with a specific case study that compares the history, values and learning systems of practitioners from selected communities with interests in ecological knowledge. With specific reference to methodological tools for the comparison of Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge and Western Science, the key strategy is to develop a concept-neutral method for representation of both knowledge systems. This form of systematic concept mapping can be a very practical tool with which to compare and contrast Traditional Aboriginal Knowledge and Western Science in a novel environmental that is not directly related to either of the knowledge systems to be compared. The investigation includes the following general aspects of learning systems that can be expected to occur in both cultures: value of learning, recognition of uncertainty, sources of knowledge, explanation of cause and effect, and evaluation of reliable ecological knowledge.
Crawford, S., S. Matchett & K. Reid. 2005. Decision Analysis/Adaptive Management (DAAM) for Great Lakes fisheries: a general review and proposal. Draft discussion paper presented at IAGLR (International Association for Great Lakes Research) 2005 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan USA. 54+pp.
Reid, K., P. Meisenheimer & S.S. Crawford. 2004. Using decision analysis and adaptive management (DAAM) to determine research and management priorities for American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in the Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River ecosystem: a proposed methodology. Submitted to American Fisheries Society.
Crawford, S., K. McCann & A. Muir. 2003. 2003 Saugeen Ojibway commercial harvest TACs for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron. Report prepared for the Chippewas of Nawash Unceded First Nation, R.R. #5, Wiarton, Ontario. 109+pp.
Nudds, T., S. Crawford, K. Reid & K. McCann. 2003. The DAAM Project: Decision Analysis and Adaptive Management (DAAM) systems for Great Lakes fisheries: the Lake Erie walleye and yellow perch fisheries. Project background and draft work plan., Report prepared for Lake Erie Fish Packers and Producers Association by University of Guelph, Chippewas of Nawash First Nation and Ontario Commercial Fisheries Association. 23pp.
Crawford, S.S. 2001. Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: an historical review and evaluation of ecological effects. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 132. National Research Council Canada Monograph Series, NRC Research Press, Ottawa. 205pp.
Crawford, S., A. Muir & K. McCann. 2001. Ecological basis for recommendation of 2001 Saugeen Ojibway commercial harvest TACs for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron. Report prepared for the Chippewas of Nawash First Nation, R.R. #5, Wiarton, Ontario. 149pp.
Holmes, J.A., D.L.G. Noakes, S.S. Crawford, & D.A. Wismer. 2001a. Lake whitefish and round whitefish biology: a review of ecological factors affecting growth, survival, and reproduction. Axelrod Institute of Ichthyology, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario. 302pp.
Holmes, J.A., D.L.G. Noakes, S.S. Crawford, & D.A. Wismer. 2001b. Aquatic effects of nuclear generating stations on fishes. Axelrod Institute of Ichthyology, Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario. 440pp.
Crawford, S.S. & B. Morito. 1997. Comment: Toward a definition of conservation principles for fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54: 2720-2723.
Crawford, S.S. & E.K. Balon. 1996. Cause and effect of parental care in fishes. pp.53-107. In: J.S. Rosenblatt and C.T. Snowdon (ed.) "Parental Care: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Adaptive Significance" Advances in the Study of Behavior, Volume 25. Academic Press, Toronto.
BIOL*2060 Introduction to Ecology
ZOO*1500 Humans in the Natural World
ZOO*4110 Principles of Fish & Wildlife Management
Lukey, James (PhD)
Naumann, Benjamin (MSc)
Ryan, Kathleen (MSc)