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Dr. Andrew McAdam
Associate Professor

Dr. Andrew McAdam

Office: SCIE 2457
Ext.: 56826
Lab: SCIE 2403/2404
Ext.: 54582


I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in the ecological mechanisms of short-term evolutionary change in natural populations. Research in my lab investigates the biotic and abiotic factors influencing the strength and mode of selection and genetic and environmental constraints on adaptation. These include interactions between closely associated species, the effects of food and climate on adaptation, as well as the unique role that human activities play as a contemporary evolutionary force. I use observational and experimental approaches in the field and in captivity, as well as a variety of quantitative statistical techniques, but these are motivated by a core interest in understanding the causes and consequences of natural variation in wild populations.


B.Sc. - McGill University
M.Sc. - University of Western Ontario
Ph.D. - University of Alberta


My research group takes empirical approaches to understanding the evolution and ecology of wild organisms. Natural selection and evolution occur within an ecological context, so a major goal of our work is to examine the ecological circumstances associated with contemporary evolution. Humans represent an increasingly important component of the ecology of many wild organisms, but the direct and indirect effects of human activities on evolutionary change are still poorly understood. As a result, while we continue to investigate the process of evolution under relatively pristine conditions, we are also interested in the role of humans as a contemporary evolutionary force. Information on some ongoing projects is provided below.

Evolutionary interactions between red squirrels and white spruce.

One of the main research directions in my lab investigates the importance of spruce cone abundance to life history adaptations in a natural population of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). In this work we combine field experiments with the analysis of long-term pedigree data (1989-present) to quantify heritabilities, genetic correlations and selection gradients as well as changes in phenotypes and breeding values across generations. More recently we have started to investigate the corresponding selection pressure that red squirrel seed predation imposes on spruce cone production. For more information on recent and ongoing red squirrel work, including an ongoing experiment to test mechanisms of adaptation in this population visit the red squirrel page (

Humans as a contemporary evolutionary force

The ecological circumstances experienced by many wild organisms are increasingly influenced by human activities. In many fish and game populations humans have replaced natural predators as the primary source of mortality. In addition, humans intentionally and unintentionally move organisms outside their native range, changing the selective environment for both exotic and native species. Finally the effects of climate change on the seasonal timing of events have now been documented in a wide range of species. We are interested in investigating the impacts of these direct and indirect human disturbances on contemporary patterns of natural selection and anthropogenic evolutionary change in harvested populations, invasive species and species impacted by climate change. Understanding how organisms have evolved in response to human activities will hopefully allow us to make wiser decisions regarding the management of these systems.

Selected Publications
Three most recent papers:

McFarlane, S. E., J. E. Lane, R. W. Taylor, J. C. Gorrell, D. W. Coltman, M. M. Humphries, S. Boutin, and A. G. McAdam. 2011. The heritability of multiple male mating in a promiscuous mammal. Biology Letters, 7: 368-371.

Dantzer, B., A. G. McAdam, R. Palme, M. M. Humphries, S. Boutin, and R. Boonstra. 2011. Maternal androgens and behaviour in territorial North American red squirrels. Animal Behaviour 81: 469-479.

Dantzer, B., R. Palme, Q. E. Fletcher, A. G. McAdam, S. Boutin, M. M. Humphries and R. Boonstra. 2010. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition. General and Comparative Endocrinology 167: 279-286.

Three most cited papers:

Réale, D., A. G. McAdam, S. Boutin, and D. Berteaux. 2003. Genetic and plastic responses of a northern mammal to climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 270: 591-596.

McAdam, A. G., S. Boutin, D. Réale, and D. Berteaux. 2002. Maternal effects and the potential for evolution in a natural population of animals. Evolution 56: 846-851.

Boutin, S., L. A. Wauters, A. G. McAdam, M. M. Humphries, G. Tosi, and A. A. Dhondt. 2006. Anticipatory reproduction and population growth in seed predators. Science 314: 1928-1930.

Three other papers:

Gorrell, J. C., A. G. McAdam, D. W. Coltman, M. M. Humphries, and S. Boutin. 2010. Adopting kin enhances inclusive fitness in asocial red squirrels. Nature Communications. 1: 22 doi:10.1038/ncomms1022.

Svensson, E. I., A. G. McAdam, and B. Sinervo. 2009. Intralocus sexual conflict over immune defense resolves gender load and affects sex-specific signaling in a natural lizard population. Evolution 63: 3124-3135.

McAdam, A. G. and S. Boutin. 2004. Maternal effects and the response to selection in red squirrels. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 271: 75-79.

Grad Students

Ben Dantzer (PhD, Hormone-mediated maternal effects in red squirrels)
Kayla Deasley (MSc)
Randy Do (MSc, Effects of bait supplements on shrew mortality during small mammal live-trapping)
Gillian Merritt (MSc)
Andrea Miehls (PhD, Evolutionary ecology of an invasive zooplankton, Bythotrephes longimanus)
Erin Siracusa (PhD)
Ryan Taylor (PhD, Evolutionary ecology of animal personality in red squirrels)

Postdoctoral Researchers

Dr Amy Newman (Effects of maternal stress on the HPA axis, neuroanatomy and offspring fitness)


McAdam Lab Website
Red Squirrel Project
Information for potential graduate students and postdocs