For studies that the results of it lead to decision making process as next step, are they considered consulting or professional service?

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Each department will have to assess these scenarios on a case by case basis. Please refer to the PSDoc.2001 Bill 122- Consulting vs Non-Consulting Services April 2011, on what are professional services and what are consulting.

The differentiating factor between professional services and consulting is whether the service is mostly “thinking” and whether it is strategic versus tactical in nature.