My research program focuses on molecular and genetic toxicology. We study environmental mutagens and the enzymes that catalyze their metabolism, including nitroreductases, P450 enzymes, and glutathione transferases. We want to understand the enzymes’ mechanisms of catalytic activity and substrate specificity. A particular focus is the recent discovery of the potent activating effect of the cyano group on the mutagenicity of nitroaromatic compounds: Josephy et al., Structure-activity investigation of the potentiating effect of cyano substitution on nitroaniline mutagenicity in the Ames test, Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59: 114-122, 2018. We are also exploring the relationships between enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism and cellular signal transduction processes. Our research technologies range from chemistry to genetics, including genotoxicity assays, enzyme assays, organic synthesis, analytical methods (such as HPLC-MS), and proteomics.