Churning Efficiency (Ec)

 - represents fat transferred from cream to butter

Ec = 1 - fbm/fc 
where fbm = buttermilk fat as percent w/w
fc = cream fat as percent w/w

Maximum acceptable fat loss in buttermilk is about 0.7% of churned fat corresponding to a churning efficiency of 99.3% of cream fat recovered in the butter. Churning efficiency is highest in the winter months and lowest in the summer months. Fat losses are higher in ripened butter due to a restructuring of the FGM (possibly involving crystallization of high melting triglycerides on the surface of the globules). If churning temperature is too high, churning occurs more quickly but fat loss in buttermilk increases. For continuous churns assuming 45% cream, churning efficiency should be 99.61 - 99.42%.