Hardware Design

Open Tubular:

Tubes of membrane with a diameter of 1/2 to 1 inch and length to 12 ft. are encased in reinforced fibreglass or enclosed inside a rigid PVC or stainless steel shell. As the feed solution flows through the membrane core, the permeate passes through the membrane and is collected in the tubular housing. Imagine 12 ft long straws!

Hollow Fibre:

Similar to open tubular, but the cartridges contain several hundred very small (1 mm diam) hollow membrane tubes or fibres. As the feed solution flows through the open cores of the fibres, the permeate is collected in the cartridge area surrounding the fibres. 

Plate and Frame:

This system is set up like a plate heat exchanger with the retentate on one side and the permeate on the other. The permeate is collected through a central collection tube. 

Spiral Wound:

This design tries to maximize surface area in a minimum amount of space. It consists of consecutive layers of large membrane and support material in an envelope type design rolled up around a perforated steel tube.