Before we leave ice cream structure, I want to draw your attention to the following address: "Foods Under the Microscope". This is a link to an absolutely marvelous website developed by my good friend Dr. Milos Kalab, with many high-quality images of the structure of milk and dairy products obtained during Dr. Kalab's long and outstanding career as a food microscopist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Ottawa. Dr. Kalab asked me to contribute microscopic images of ice cream structure as a guest microscopist. You can find my (Doug Goff) first contribution under "Guest microscopists", and I have also copied it here. Subsequent to that submission, I have prepared another one for D. Kalab that focuses on the use of cryo-fixation and TEM for visualization of fat and air structures in ice cream. One of my graduate students, Alejandra Regand, also made a contribution, based on her M.Sc. thesis work, focusing on the structure of polysaccharides in frozen solutions.
Ice cream structure is an active area of our research here at the University of Guelph. Please see my publications for more details of our research.