Structure of Milk and Dairy Products

This is a link to an absolutely marvellous website developed by my good friend Dr. Miloslav Kalab, entitled "Foods Under the Microscope", with many high-quality images of the structure of milk and dairy products obtained during Dr. Kalab's long and outstanding career as a food microscopist with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in Ottawa. He had a section on his site for guest microscopists, which I have contributed to, and I have copied my contributions here. My first contribution is a general discussion on ice cream structure as viewed by scanning electron microscopy and my second one focuses on the use of cryo-fixation and TEM for visualization of fat and air structures in ice cream. One of my graduate students, Alejandra Regand, also made a contribution, based on her M.Sc. thesis work, focussing on the structure of polysaccharides in frozen solutions.

Dr. Kalab has recently published a review of the structure of milk and dairy products entitled "The Beauty of Milk at High Magnification" available from the Royal Microscopical Society. Dr. Kalab was awarded the Isaac Heertje Lifetime Achievement Award by the Food Structure and Fnctionality Forum and the International dairy Federation at a joint meeting in Montreal in 2018. His lecture, "Milk and Microscopy",  following the presentation of his award is available on YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhXY3YbY-08. 

From 1982-1994, Dr. Kalab was an editor of the Food Structure Journal, which became defunct in 1994. Dr. Kalab has written a history of the journal on his website and there is also now a Wikipedia entry on the journal. On the next page, I have included a list of the papers published in the journal from the University of Guelph. As a service to future Food Microcopists, Dr. Kalab and I have reproduced the Tables of Contents of all Food Structure journal issues on the page below. In addition, all the papers from this journal are now being scanned and made available digitally at Utah State University Digital Commons, thanks to Prof. Donald McMahon, Utah State University.  

Food Structure journal - Contributions from the University of Guelph

Food Structure journal: 1982-1993

The news about a new Food Structure journal established in 2013 by Elsevier Publishers comes almost exactly 20 years after the demise of a journal of that name, which represented a specialized publication forum for food scientists for 12 years.

An American organization in Chicago, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc., included food science in 1979 for the first time in its program of international annual conferences. This success led to a decision to start publishing a dedicated food structure journal under the title "Food Microstructure", which appeared semiannually starting in 1982. The Editor-in-Chief was a Canadian scientist, M. Kalab (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) and the first editors were 3 American scientists, S.H. Cohen, Eugenia Davis, and D.N. Holcomb. Om Johari of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc., (later renamed Scanning Microscopy International) was managing editor and publisher. W.J. Wolf (USDA) joined the journal as an additional American editor. Additional editors - I. Heertje of Unilever Research in the Netherlands and K. Sato of Hiroshima University in Japan took editorial care of manuscripts arriving from Europe and Asia, respectively. In addition to the editors, there was an Editorial Board, the members of which helped to review manuscripts. A total of 19 countries were represented in the Board over the existence of the journal. In 1990, it was renamed "Food Structure" at the suggestion of I. Heertje.

As a co-founder of the journal and its editor-in-chief, M. Kalab has published his reminiscences on the beginnings as well as the demise of the journal. He has included statistical data on the papers published as well as the representation of individual foods. A total of 386 papers were published (see Tables of Contents of all journals here). Milk and dairy products were the subjects of 79 papers followed by 61 papers on meat. The following 15 papers were published from the University of Guelph:

  • H. D. Geissinger, D. W. Stanley. 1981. Preparation of muscle samples for electron microscopy (Tutorial paper). Studies of Food Microstrucure 61-72 (SEM/1981/III:415-426, 414).
  • J. M. deMan. 1982. Microscopy in the study of fats and emulsions (Review paper). Food Microstructure 1(2):209-222.
  • D. W. Stanley. 1983. A review of the muscle cell cytoskeleton and its possible relation to meat texture and sarcolemma emptying.  (Review paper). Food Microstructure 2(1):99-110.
  • J. M. deMan, A. N. Mostafa, A. K. Smith. 1985. Thermal analysis microscopy for the study of phase changes in fats. Food Microstructure 4(2):233-240.
  • J. M. deMan, L. deMan, S. Gupta. 1986. Texture and microstructure of soybean curd (tofu) as affected by different coagulants.  Food Microstructure 5(1):83-90.
  • Goff, H.D., M. Liboff, W.K. Jordan, and J.E. Kinsella. 1987. The effects of Polysorbate 80 on the fat emulsion in ice cream mix : evidence from transmission electron microscopy studies. Food Microstructure 6(2):193-198.
  • Liboff, M., H.D. Goff, Z. Haque, W.K. Jordan, and J.E. Kinsella. 1988. Changes in the ultrastructure of emulsions as a result of electron microscopy preparation procedures. Food Microstructure 7(1):67-74.
  • A. Gordon, S. Barbut. 1989. The effect of chloride salts on the texture, microstructure and stability of meat batters. Food Microstructure 8(2):271-283.
  • A. Gordon, S. Barbut. 1990. The role of the interfacial protein film in meat batter stabilization. Food Structure 9(2):77-90.
  • A. Gordon, S. Barbut. 1990. The microstructure of raw meat batters prepared with monovalent and divalent chloride salts. Food Structure 9(4):279-296.
  • P. Chawla, J. M. deMan, A. K. Smith. 1990. Crystal morphology of shortenings and margarines (Tutorial paper). Food Structure 9(4):329-336.
  • A. Gordon, S. Barbut. 1991. Effect of chemical modification on the microstructure of raw meat batters. Food Structure 10(3):241-254.
  • Caldwell, K. B., H. D Goff, and D. W. Stanley. 1992. A low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study of ice cream. I. Techniques and general microstructure. Food Structure. 11(1):1-9 .
  • Caldwell, K. B., H. D Goff, and D. W. Stanley. 1992. A low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study of ice cream. II. Influence of selected ingredients and processes. Food Structure 11(1):11-23.
  • A. Gordon, S. Barbut. 1992. Effect of chemical modifications on the stability, texture and microstructure of cooked meat batters. (Review paper). Food Structure 11(2):133-146.

Food Structure journal - Tables of Contents from 1982-1994

FOOD STRUCTURE
(formerly FOOD MICROSTRUCTURE)
Tables of Contents for 1982-1994

Image of the Food Structure JournalBeginning in 1979, programs on food microstructure took place at annual Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Meetings. Thirty six papers published in various SEM volumes have been compiled to form a book entitled Studies of Food Microstructure. The papers have been divided into 4 general areas:

1. general applications
2. meat foods
3. milk products
4. foods of plant origin

The table of contents is at the end of this page. Publication of the book preceded establishing the new journal, Food Microstructure
FOOD MICROSTRUCTURE was established as an international scientific journal on the microstructure and microanalysis of foods, feeds, and their ingredients in 1982 in the USA by food scientists:

  • S. H. Cohen (Sci. & Adv. Tech. Lab., US Army Natick R&D, Natick, MA)
  • E. A. Davis (Dept. Food Sci. & Nutr., Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN)
  • D. N. Holcomb (Kraft Inc., Glenview, IL)
  • M. Kaláb (Food Res. Inst., Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ont., Canada)

The journal was published initially twice a year by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc., AMF O'Hare (Chicago), IL, under the direction of Om Johari, Managing Editor. In 1990, the title of the journal was changed to FOOD STRUCTURE and the publication frequency was increased to 4 issues per annum. W. J. Wolf (USDA Northern Regional Research Center, Peoria, IL) joined the journal as another editor in 1991. I. Heertje (Unilever Research Laboratorium, Vlaardingen, the Netherlands) served as the European editor and K. Sato (Department of Applied Biology, Hiroshima University, Shitami, Japan) took editorial care of manuscripts arriving from Asian countries. Food structure studies flourished. Irrespective of this success, however, Om Johari terminated publishing the journal in 1994 without giving any reason. This means that Vol. 12 is the last one. Manuscripts submitted for publication in FOOD STRUCTURE were later published in FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (LWT) by Academic Press.

All manuscripts were peer-reviewed. Almost all authors responded in writing to reviewers' comments in the form of a 'discussion with reviewers'. Alternatively they revised their manuscripts. In addition to critically evaluating former achievements in the particular fields, all review papers also contain new information provided by the authors.

The table of contents published in Food Microstructure and later in Food Structure is being provided to assist food microscopists in their search for topics of interest. Journal issues may be found in food science libraries at various universities under ISSN 0730-5419, CODEN - FMICDK (Food Microstructure, 1982-1990) and ISSN 1046-705X, CODEN - FSTUE2 (Food Structure - 1991-1993). Thanks to Prof. Donald McMahon, Utah State University, this journal collection is now being scanned and made available digitally at the USU Digital Commons.

 

Vol. 1 - 1982 - Vol. 2 - 1983 - Vol. 3 - 1984 - Vol. 4 - 1985 
Vol. 5 - 1986 - Vol. 6 - 1987 - Vol. 7 - 1988 - Vol. 8 - 1989 
Vol. 9 - 1990 - Vol. 10. - 1991 - Vol. 11 - 1992 - Vol. 12 - 1993

Food Microstructure Vol. 1, Number 1, 1982

  • Food microstructure: An integrative approach. E. A. Davis, J. Gordon (Review paper) pp. 1-12.
  • Correlation of microscopic structure of corn starch granules with rheological properties of cooked pastes. D. D. Christianson, F. L. Baker, A. R. Loffredo, E. B. Bagley pp. 13-24.
  • Structure and properties of the particulate constituents of human milk: A review. M. Rüegg, B. Blanc (Review paper) pp. 25-48.
  • Detection of buttermilk solids in meat binders by electron microscopy. M. Kaláb, F. Comer pp. 49-54.
  • Some effects of lipids on the structure of foods. K. Larsson (Review paper) pp. 55-62.
  • Protein bodies in dormant, imbibed and germinated sunflower cotyledons. R. D. Allen, H. J. Arnott pp. 63-73.
  • Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on meat microstructure. E. A. Elgasim, W. H. Kennick pp. 75-82.
  • Ultrastructural studies of milk digestion in the suckling rat. P. B. Berendsen(Review paper) pp. 83-90.
  • Freeze-induced fibre formation in protein extracts from residues of mechanically separated poultry. R. A. Lawrence, P. Jelen pp. 91-97.
  • Instrumental and sensory analysis of the action of cathepsin enzymes on flaked and formed beef. S. H. Cohen, R. A. Segars, A. Cardello, J. Smith, F. M. Robbins pp. 99-105.

Food Microstructure Vol. 1, Number 2, 1982

  • Grain structure and end-use properties. Y. Pomeranz (Review paper) pp. 107-124.
  • Scanning electron microscopy of the pericarp and testa of several sorghum varieties. C. F. Earp, L. W. Rooney pp. 125-134.
  • The microscopic structure and chemistry of rapeseed and its products. S. H. Yiu, H. Poon, R. G. Fulcher, I. Altosaar pp. 135-144.
  • Light microscopy preparation techniques for starch and lipid containing snack foods. F. O. Flint pp. 145-150.
  • Electron microscopy of milk and milk products: Problems and possibilities. D. G. Schmidt pp. 151-166.
  • Fluorescence microscopy of cereals. R. G. Fulcher (Review paper) pp. 167-176.
  • Freeze-etch of emulsified cake batters during baking. J. D. Cloke, J. Gordon, E. A. Davis pp. 177-188.
  • Aspects of sample preparation for freeze-fracture/freeze-etch studies of proteins and lipids in food systems. W. Buchheim (Review paper) pp.189-208.
  • Microscopy in the study of fats and emulsions. J. M. deMan (Review paper) pp. 209-222.
  • Morphological and textural comparisons of soybean Mozzarella cheese analogs prepared with different hydrocolloids. C. S. Yang, M. V. Taranto pp. 223-232.
  • Electron microscopic localization of solvent-extractable fat in agglomerated spray-dried whole milk powder particles. W. Buchheim pp. 233-238.

Food Microstructure Vol. 2, Number 1, 1983

  • Ultrastructure studies of pasta. A review. P. Resmini, M. A. Pagani (Review paper) pp. 1-12.
  • Endosperm degradation in barley kernels that synthesize alpha-amylase in the absence of embryos and exogenous gibberellic acid. A. W. MacGregor, P. B. Nicholls, L. Dushnicky pp. 13-22.
  • An alternative to critical point drying for preparing meat emulsions for scanning electron microscopy. E. J. Basgall, P. J. Bechtel, F. K. McKeith pp. 23-26.
  • Image analysis of morphological changes in wiener batters during chopping and cooking. A. G. Kempton, S. Trupp (Review paper) pp. 27-42.
  • Composition and microstructure of soft brine cheese made from instant whole milk powder. M. M. Omar, W. Buchheim pp. 43-50.
  • Development of microstructure in set-style nonfat yoghurt - a review. M. Kaláb, P. Allan-Wojtas, B. E. Phipps-Todd (Review paper) pp. 51-66.
  • Field spectroscopy in the food production chain. E. J. Brach (Review paper) pp. 67-80.
  • The structure of fresh and desiccated coconut. J. F. Heathcock, J. A. Chapmanpp. 81-90.
  • Effect of prerigor pressurization on bovine lysosomal enzyme activity. E. A. Elgasim, W. H. Kennick, A. F. Anglemier, M. Koohmaraie, E. A. Elkhalifa pp. 91-98.
  • A review of the muscle cell cytoskeleton and its possible relation to meat texture and sarcolemma emptying. D. W. Stanley (Review paper) pp. 99-110.
  • Myofibrillar characteristics of porcine stress syndrome. P. K. Basrur, S. Frombach, W. N. McDonell, H. D. Geissinger pp. 111-118.

Food Microstructure Vol. 2, Number 2, 1983

  • Sensory and instrumental texture properties of flaked and formed beef. A. V. Cardello, R. A. Segars, J. Secrist, J. Smith, S. H. Cohen, R. Rosenkrans pp. 119-134.
  • Morphometry of meat by scanning light microscopy. H. J. Swatland pp. 135-142.
  • Infection of oriental mustard by Nematospora: A fluorescence and scanning electron microscope study. R. A. Holley, B. E. Phipps-Todd, S. H. Yiu pp. 143-152.
  • Evaluation of selected properties of chlorinated wheat flours in a lean cake formulation. J. Grider, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon pp.153-160.
  • Stranded structure development in thermally produced whey protein concentrate gel. T. Beveridge, L. Jones, M. A. Tung pp. 161-164.
  • The effect of commercial processing on the structure and microchemical organization of rapeseed. S. H. Yiu, I. Altosaar, R. G. Fulcher pp. 165-174.
  • Microstructure of winged beans. K. Saio, Y. Nakano, S. Uemoto pp. 175-182.
  • Beta-glucans in the caryopsis of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. C. F. Earp, C. A. Doherty, R. G. Fulcher, L. W. Rooney pp. 183-188.

Food Microstructure Vol. 3, Number 1, 1984

  • An analysis of microstructural factors which influence the use of muscle as food. R. G. Cassens, C. E. Carpenter, T. J. Eddinger (Review paper) pp. 1-8.
  • Studies on the microdistribution of aerobic enzymes and myoglobin in pork.H. J. Swatland pp. 9-16.
  • The role of gap filaments in muscle and in meat. R. H. Locker (Review paper) pp. 17-32.
  • Processing effects on meat product microstructure. G. R. Schmidt (Review paper) pp. 33-40.
  • X-Ray microanalysis of hollow heart potatoes. W. P. Mohr, A. R. Spurr, P. Fenn, H. Timm pp. 41-48.
  • Determination of element concentration in fresh and processed vegetables by quantitative X-ray microanalysis. M. Grote, H. G. Fromme pp. 49-54.
  • Electron microscopic investigations of the cell structure in fresh and processed vegetables (carrots and green bean pods). M. Grote, H. G. Fromme pp. 55-64
  • Microstructural changes in winged bean and soybean during fermentation into miso. K. Saio, H. Suzuki, T. Kobayashi, M. Namikawa pp. 65-72.
  • The effect of microwave energy and convection heating on wheat starch granule transformation. N. K. Goebel, J. Grider, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon pp.73-82.
  • Microstructure of set-style yoghurt manufactured from cow's milk fortified by various methods. A. Y. Tamime, M. Kaláb, G. Davies (Review paper) pp. 83-92.
  • Transportation of fragile food specimens such as milk gels destined for electron microscopy. P. Allan-Wojtas pp. 93.

Food Microstructure Vol. 3, Number 2, 1984

  • Artefacts in conventional scanning electron microscopy of some milk products. M. Kaláb pp. 95-112.
  • The effect of salt and pyrophosphate on the structure of meat. C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer pp. 113-126.
  • Some factors influencing ante-mortem changes in muscle: A brief review. S. C. Seideman, S. H. Cohen, J. V. Schollmeyer (Tutorial paper) pp. 127-132.
  • Preliminary evaluation of lectins as fluorescent probes of seed structure and composition. S. Shea Miller, S. H. Yiu, R. G. Fulcher, I. Altosaar pp. 133-140.
  • Morphological development in sorghum grain. C. W. Glennie, N. v. d. W. Liebenberg, T. J. van Tonder pp. 141-148.
  • Mineral migration in the wheat kernel during mill conditioning. A. Al Saleh, B. Bouchet, D. J. Gallant pp. 149-158.
  • Light and scanning electron microscopy of wheat and rye-bread crumb. Interpretation of specimens prepared by various methods. Y. Pomeranz, D. Meyer pp. 159-164.
  • Ultrastructure of quinoa fruit (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). E. Varriano-Marston, A. DeFrancisco pp. 165-174.
  • Ultrastructural aspects of spun pea and fababean proteins. D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, J. Culioli pp. 175-184.
  • Effect of environment on the physical structure of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 185-190.
  • Ultrastructural studies of raw and processed tissue of the major cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. E. M. Jasinski, B. Stembereger, R. Walsh, A. Kilara pp. 191-196.
  • A simple procedure for the preparation of stirred yoghurt for electron microscopy. P. Allan-Wojtas, M. Kaláb pp. 197-198.

Food Microstructure Vol. 4, Number 1, 1985

  • The size distribution of bovine casein micelles: A review. C. Holt (Review paper) pp. 1-10.
  • Scanning electron microscopic study of rockfish preserved at either ambient temperature or by isothermal freeze-fixation. L. E. Lampila, V. Mohr, D. S. Reidpp. 11-16.
  • Characterisation of milk proteins in confectionery products. J. F. Heathcockpp. 17-28.
  • The light microscopy of triglyceride digestion. J. S. Patton, R. D. Vetter, M. Hamosh, B. Borgström, M. Lindström, M. C. Carey (Review paper) pp. 29-42.
  • Seed structure and composition of potential new crops. D. W. Irving, R. Beckerpp. 43-54.
  • The combined effects of the calcium activated factor and cathepsin D on skeletal muscle. E. A. Elgasim, M. Koohmaraie, A. F. Anglemier, W. H. Kennick, E. A. Elkhalifa pp. 55-62.
  • Microstructure of meat emulsions in relation to fat stabilization. C. M. Lee(Review paper) pp. 63-72.
  • Early research on the fibrous microstructure of meat. H. J. Swatland pp. 73-82.
  • Application of electron spin resonance techniques to model starch systems. L. E. Pearce, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, W. G. Miller pp. 83-88.
  • Development of microstructure in a cream cheese based on Queso blanco cheese. M. Kaláb, H. W. Modler pp. 89-98.
  • A fluorescence microscopic study of cheese. S. H. Yiu pp. 99-106.
  • Small angle X-ray scattering by hydrated wheat starch granules. M. Yang, J. Grider, J. Gordon, E. A. Davis pp. 107-114.
  • Seed microstructure: Review of water imbibition in legumes. B. G. Swanson, J. S. Hughes, H. P. Rasmussen pp. 115-124.
  • The microstructure of wheat: Its development and conversion into bread. D. B. Bechtel pp. 125-134.
  • The application of light and scanning electron microscopy during flour milling and wheat processing. R. Moss pp. 135-142.
  • Ultrastructural studies on the cultivation processes and growth and development of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. D. A. Wood, G. D. Craig, P. T. Atkey, R. J. Newsam, K. Gull (Review paper) pp. 1443-164.
  • Comparison of the microstructure of firm and stem-end softened cucumber pickles preserved by brine fermentation. W. M. Walter Jr., H. P. Flemming, R. N. Trigiano pp. 165-172.
  • Ultrastructural study of yam tuber as related to postharvest hardness. L. Sealy, S. Renaudin, D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, J. M. Brillouet pp. 173-181.

Food Microstructure Vol. 4, Number 2, 1985

  • Microstructural changes in maturing seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J. S. Highes, B. G. Swanson pp. 183-190.
  • Changes in typical organelles in developing cotyledons of soybean. K. Saio, K. Kondo, T. Sugimoto pp. 191-198.
  • Rheological and ultrastructural studies of wheat kernel behaviour under compression as a function of water content. A. Al Saleh, D. J. Gallant pp. 199-212.
  • Structure of coarse and fine fractions of corn samples ground on the Stenvert hardness tester. Y. Pomeranz, Z. Czuchajowska pp. 213-220.
  • Relation between microstructure, destabilization phenomena and rheological properties of whippable emulsions. W. Buchheim, N. M. Barfod, N. Krog pp. 221-232.
  • Thermal analysis microscopy for the study of phase changes in fats. J. M. deMan, A. N. Mostafa, A. K. Smith pp. 233-240.
  • Combining microscopy and physical techniques in the study of cocoa butter polymorphs and vegetable fat blends. J. D. Hicklin, G. G. Jewell, J. F. Heathcockpp. 241-248.
  • Crystal morphology of cocoa butter. D. M. Manning, P. S. Dimick (Review paper) pp. 249-266.
  • Structure formation in acid milk gels. I. Heertje, J. Visser, P. Smits pp. 267-278.
  • Rheological and scanning electron microscopy examination of skim milk gels obtained by fermenting with ropy and non-ropy strains of lactic bacteria. S. M. Schellhaass, H. A. Morris pp. 279-288.
  • Observations on the air-serum interface of milk foams. B. E. Brooker pp. 289-296.
  • Effects of emulsifying agents on the microstructure and other characteristics of process cheese - A review. M. Caric, M. Gantar, M. Kaláb (Review paper) pp. 297-312.
  • Properties of calcium caseinates with disparate performance in imitation cheese. K. Fleming, R. Jenness, H. A. Morris, R. Schmidt pp. 313-322.
  • Ultrastructural and biochemical investigations of mature human milk. R. J. Carroll, J. J. Basch, J. G. Phillips, H. M. Farrell Jr. pp. 323-331.
  • Particle structure in spray-dried whole milk and in instant skim milk powder as related to lactose crystallization. Z. Saito (Review paper) pp. 333-340.
  • Microstructure of spray-dried and freeze-dried microalgal powders. L. P. Linpp. 341-348.
  • Effect of ionizing irradiation and storage on mushroom ultrastructure. I. The gills of Agaricus bisporus (Lge.) Imbach and Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer. A. Keresztes, J. Kovács, E. Kovács pp. 349-356.
  • Ultrastructural utilization of plants by herbivores. L. H. Harbers (Tutorial paper) pp. 357-364.

Food Microstructure Vol. 5, Number 1, 1986

  • Features of food microscopy. D. F. Lewis (Review paper) pp. 1-18.
  • Fixing conditions in the freeze substitution technique for light microscopy observation of frozen beef tissue. M. N. Martino, N. E. Zaritzky pp. 19-24.
  • Changes in the microstructure of skipjack tuna during frozen storage and heat treatment. L. E. Lampila, W. D. Brown pp. 25-32.
  • Freeze texturization of proteins: Effect of the alkali, acid and freezing treatment on texture formation. F. I. Consolacion, P. Jelen pp. 33-40.
  • The fine structure of the endomysium, perimysium and intermyofibrillar connections in muscle. M. W. Orcutt, T. R. Dutson, F. Y. Wu, S. B. Smith pp. 41-52.
  • Action of polyphosphates in meat products. D. F. Lewis, K. H. M. Groves, J. H. Holgate pp. 53-62.
  • Microscopical observations on the structure of bacon. C. A. Voyle, P. D. Jolley, G. W. Offer (Review paper) pp. 63-70.
  • Accuracy and utility of sarcomere length assessment by laser diffraction. P. A. Koolmees, F. Korteknie, F. J. M. Smulders pp. 71-76.
  • Cryo-scanning electron microscopy of microorganisms in a liquid film on spoiled chicken skin. T. A. McMeekin, D. McCall, C. J. Thomas pp. 77-82.
  • Texture and microstructure of soybean curd (tofu) as affected by different coagulants. J. M. deMan, L. deMan, S. Gupta pp. 83-90.
  • Observations on the microstructure and rheology of ovalbumin gels. I. Heertje, F. S. M. van Kleef pp. 91-98.
  • The microstructure of the hen's egg shell - a short review. R. M. G. Hamilton(Review paper) pp. 99-110.
  • Ultrastructure of cooked spaghetti. M. A. Pagani, D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, P. Resmini pp. 111-130.
  • Microstructure of mealy and vitreous wheat endosperms (Triticum durum L.) with special emphasis on location and polymorphic behaviour of lipids. A. Al Saleh, D. Marion, D. J. Gallant pp. 131-140.
  • Ultrastructure of maize starch granules. A review. D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet(Review paper) pp.141-156.
  • Mucilage in yellow mustard (Brassica hirta) seeds. I. R. Siddiqui, S. H. Yiu, J. D. Jones, M. Kaláb pp. 157-162.
  • Rheological and particle size changes in corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by 7S soybean proteins. M. Reeve, P. Sherman pp. 163-168.
  • Mechanical properties of cheese, cheese analogues and protein gels in relation to composition and microstructure. M. L. Green, K. R. Langley, R. J. Marshall, B. E. Brooker, A. Willis, J. F. V. Vincent pp. 169-180.
  • Ultrastructural aspects and physico-chemical properties of ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)-treated coffee cream. W. Buchheim, G. Falk, A. Hinz pp. 181-192.

Food Microstructure Vol. 5, Number 2, 1986

  • The skinned fiber technique as a potential method for study of muscle as a food. R. G. Cassens, T. J. Eddinger, R. L. Moss pp. 193-196.
  • Current concepts of muscle ultrastructure with emphasis on Z-line architecture. M. Yamaguchi, H. Kamisoyama, S. Nada, S. Yamano, M. Izumimoto, Y. Hirai, R. G. Cassens, H. Nasu, M. Muguruma, T. Fukazawa(Review paper) pp. 197-206.
  • Comparative microscopy and morphometry of skeletal muscle fibers in poultry. C. S. Williams, J. W. Williams, R. A. Chung pp. 207-218.
  • Effect of processing and cooking on the structural and microchemical composition of oats. S. H. Yiu pp. 219-226.
  • Determination of internal color of beef ribeye steaks using digital image analysis. K. Unklesbay, N. Unklesbay, J. Keller pp. 227-232.
  • The structure of gluten gels. A.-M. Hermansson, K. Larsson pp.233-240.
  • Microstructure of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris). J. S. Hughes, B. G. Swanson pp. 241-246.
  • Structural characteristics of Eleusine corocana (finger millet) using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy. C. M. McDonough, L. W. Rooney, C. F. Earp pp. 247-256.
  • Fluorescence characterization of the mature caryopsis of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Mooench. C. F. Earp, L. W. Rooney pp. 257-264.
  • Lipolytic changes in the milk fat of raw milk and their effects on the quality of milk products. E. Kirst pp. 265-276.
  • The development of structure in whipped cream. B. E. Brooker, M. Anderson, A. T. Andrews pp. 277-286.
  • Relationship between microstructure and susceptibility to syneresis in yoghurt made from reconstituted nonfat dry milk. V. R. Harwalkar, M. Kaláb pp. 287-294.
  • Electron dense granules in yoghurt: Characterization by X-ray microanalysis.E. M. Parnell-Clunies, Y. Kakuda, R. Humprey pp. 295-302.

Food Microstructure Vol. 6, Number 1, 1987

  • Product morphology of fatty products. I. Heertje, M. Leunis, W. J. M. Van Zeyl, E. Berends pp. 1-8.
  • Scanning electron microscopy studies of cellular changes in raw, fermented and dried cocoa beans. A. S. Lopez, P. S. Dimick, R. M. Walsh pp. 9-16.
  • Microbial cell division and separation: Effect of citrate on the growth of group N streptococci. S. Ita, T. Kobayashi, K. Ozaki, T. Morichi, M. Saitoh pp. 17-24.
  • The crystallization of calcium phosphate at the surface of mould-ripened cheeses. B. E. Brooker pp. 25-24.
  • The size distribution and shape of curd granules in traditional Swiss hard and semi-hard cheeses. M. W. Rüegg, U. Moor pp. 35-46.
  • The morphology of black tea cream. R. D. Bee, M. J. Izzard, R. S. Harbron, J. M. Stubbs pp. 47-56.
  • Microstructural studies of texturized vegetable protein products: Effects of oil addition and transformation of raw materials in various sections of a twin screw extruder. S. Gwizda, A. Noguchi, K. Saio pp. 57-62.
  • The influence of ingredients and processing variables on the quality and microstructure of Hokkien, Cantonese and instant noodles. R. Moss, P. J. Gore, I. C. Murray pp. 63-74.
  • Effect of ionizing irradiation and storage on mushroom ultrastructure II. The stipe and the upper part of the cap of Agaricus bisporus (Lge. Imbach). A. Keresztes, E. Kovács pp. 75-80.
  • Textural properties and structure of starch-reinforced surimi gels as affected by heat-setting. J. M. Kim, C. M. Lee, L. A. Hufnagel pp. 81-90.
  • Seed microstructure and its relationship to water uptake in isogenic lines and a cultivar of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). M. A. Uebersax, K. Klomparenspp. 91-102.
  • Influence of delignifying agents on tissue structure in bermudagrass stems. D. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby, F. E. Barton II, P. Gelfand, D. S. Himmelsbach, W. R. Windham pp. 103-113.

Food Microstructure Vol. 6, Number 2, 1987

  • Confocal scanning laser microscopy in food research: Some observations. I. Heertje, P. van der Vlist, J. C. G. Blonk, H. A. C. Hendrickx, G. J. Brakenhoff pp. 115-120.
  • An electron spin resonance study of stearic acid interactions in model wheat starch and gluten systems. L. E. Pearce, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, W. G. Miller pp. 121-126.
  • Cellular rupture and release of protoplasm and protein bodies from bean and pea cotyledons during imbibition. S. C. Spaeth, J. S. Hughes pp. 127-134.
  • The microstructure and rehydration properties of the Phoenix oyster musheroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) dried by three alternative processes. B. Li-Shing-Tat, P. Jelen pp. 135-142.
  • Fluorescence and light microscopic analysis of digested oat bran. S. H. Yiu, R. Mongeau pp. 143-150.
  • Physical and molecular properties of lipid polymorphs - a review. K. Sato(Review paper) pp. 151-160.
  • Effect of clotting in stomachs of infants on protein digestibility of milk. S. Nakai, E. Li-Chan pp. 161-170.
  • Effects of drying techniques on milk powders quality and microstructure: A review. M. Caric, M. Kaláb pp. 171-180.
  • Textural properties and microstructure of process cheese food rework. M. Kaláb, J. Yun, S. H. Yiu pp. 181-192.
  • The effects of polysorbate 80 on the fat emulsion in ice cream mix: Evidence from transmission electron microscopy studies. H. D. Goff, M. Liboff, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella pp. 193-198.
  • Structural binding properties of silvercarp (Hypophtalmichthys molitrix) muscle affected by NaCl and CaCl2 treatments. I. Shomer, Z. G. Weinberg, R. Vasiliver pp. 199-208.
  • Internal porosity of corn extrudate air cell wall. S. H. Cohen, C. A. Voyle pp. 209-211.

Food Microstructure Vol. 7, Number 1, 1988

  • The effects of gamma irradiation and calcium treatment on the ultrastructure of apples and pears. E. Kovács, A. Keresztes, J. Kovács (Review paper) pp. 1-14.
  • The microstructure of spray-dried microcapsules. M. Rosenberg, Y. Talmon, I. J. Kopelman pp. 15-24.
  • Functional and microstructural effects of fillers in comminuted meat products.F. W. Comer, P. Allan-Wojtas (Review paper) pp.25-46.
  • The retention of contractility of rabbit myofibrils during storage at 25°C. M. Nakamura, M. Muguruma, T. Fukazawa, M. Yamaguchi pp. 47-52.
  • The use of transmission electron microscopy to study the composition ofPseudomonas fragi attachment material. P. J. Herald, E. A. Zottola pp. 53-58.
  • Effects of lignification, cellulose crystallinity and enzyme accessible space on the digestibility of plant cell wall carbohydrates by the ruminant. M. S. Kerley, G. C. Fahey Jr., J. M. Gould, E. L. Iannoti (Review paper) pp. 59-66.
  • Changes in the ultrastructure of emulsions as a result of electron microscopy preparation procedures. M. Liboff, H. D. Goff, Z. Haque, W. K. Jordan, J. E. Kinsella pp. 67-74.
  • Lactose crystallization in commercial whey powders and in spray-dried lactose. Z. Saito (Review paper) pp. 75-82.
  • Development of microstructure in raw, fried, and fried and cooked Paneer made from buffalo, cow, and mixed milks. M. Kaláb, S. K. Gupta, H. K. Desai, G. R. Patil pp. 83-92.
  • Amino acid composition and structure of cheese baked as a pizza ingredient in conventional and microwave ovens. A. Paquet, M. Kaláb pp. 93-104.
  • Changes in the microstructure of Saint Paulin cheese during manufacturre studied by scanning electron microscopy. M. Rousseau pp. 105-114.
  • Sample holders for solid and viscous foods compatible with the Hexland Cryotrans CT 1000 assembly. M. Kaláb, P. Allan-Wojtas, A. F. Yang pp. 115-120.

Food Microstructure Vol. 7, Number 2, 1988

  • The application of cold stage scanning electron microscopy to food research.J. A. Sargent (Review paper) pp. 123-136.
  • Ultrastructural and textural properties of restructured beef treated with a bacterial culture and splenic pulp. E. A. Elkhalifa, N. G. Marriott, R. L. Grrayson, P. P. Graham, S. K. Perkins pp. 137-146.
  • Characterization of hypercontracted fibers in skeletal muscle of domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). A. Sosnicki, R. G. Cassens, D. R. McIntyre, R. J. Vimini, M. L. Greaser pp. 147-152.
  • Porosity, specific gravity and fat dispersion in Blue cheese. K. M. K. Kebary, H. A. Morris pp. 153-160.
  • Application of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis to investigate corrosion problems in plain tinplate food cans and examine glass and glass-like particles found in canned food. J. E. Charbonneau pp. 161-172.
  • The role of beta-lactoglobulin in the development of the core-and-lining structure of casein particles in acid-heat-induced milk gels. V. R. Harwalkar, M. Kaláb pp. 173-180.
  • Microstructure of shortenings, margarine and butter - a review. A. C. Juriaanse, I. Heertje (Review paper) pp. 181-188.
  • The effect of processing on some microstructural characteristics of fat spreads. I. Heertje, J. van Eendenburg, J. M. Cornelissen, A. C. Juriaanse pp. 189-194.
  • The effect of storage, processing, and enzyme treatment on the microstructure of cloudy Spartan apple juice particulate. D.-L. McKenzie, T. Beveridge pp. 195-204.
  • Scanning electron microscopy of cellular structure of Granny Smith and Red Delicious apples. G. Trakoontivakorn, M. E. Patterson, B. G. Swanson pp. 205-212.
  • Encapsulation of viscous foods in agar gel tubes for electron microscopy. M. Kaláb (Technical note) pp. 213-214.

Food Microstructure Vol. 8, Number 1, 1989

  • Electron microscopic localization of cholesterol in bovine milk fat globules. R. W. Martin Jr. pp. 3-10.
  • Advanced techniques for preparation and characterization of small unilamellar vesicles. G. Mason pp. 11-14.
  • Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in cooked common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds. J. S. Hughes, B. G. Swanson pp. 15-22.
  • Heat-set gels based on oil/water emulsions: An application of whey protein functionality. R. Jost, F. Dannenberg, J. Rosset pp. 23-28.
  • Microstructural changes in wheat starch dispersions during heating and cooling. M. Langton, A.-M. Hermansson pp. 29-40.
  • Microstructure and texture of meat emulsions supplemented with plant proteins. A. P. Paulson, M. A. Tung pp. 41-52.
  • Effects of protein concentration in ultrafiltration milk retentates and the type of protease used for coagulation on the microstructure of resulting gels. D. D. Gavaric, M. Caric, M. Kaláb pp. 53-66.
  • The effect of irradiation on starch content in Golden Delicious apples. E. Kovács, A. Keresztes pp. 67-74.
  • Ultrastructural effects of postharvest treatments on the vacuolar inclusions in pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Hardenpont) peel. A. Keresztes, K. Boka, E. Bacsy, E. Kovács pp. 75-80.
  • Image analysis of the fat dispersion in a comminuted meat system. P. A. Koolmees, P. C. Moerman, M. H. G. Zijderveld pp. 81-90.
  • An electron microscopic study of the adherence of Lactobacillus acidophilus to human intestinal cells in vitro. S. K. Hood, E. A. Zottola pp. 91-98.
  • Cereal structure and its relationship to nutritional quality. S. H. Yiu (Review paper) pp. 99-114.
  • Changes in the ultrastructure of beef muscle as influenced by acidic conditions below the ultimate pH. M. V. Rao, N. F. S. Gault, S. Kennedy pp. 115-124.
  • Rheology and microstructure of strained yoghurt (labneh) made from cow's milk by three different methods. A. Y. Tamime, M. Kaláb, G. Davies pp. 125-136.
  • Structural characteristics of Pennisetum americanum (pearl millet) using scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy. C. M. McDonough, L. W. Rooney (Review paper) pp. 137-150.
  • The structural basis of the water-holding, appearance and toughness of meat and meat products. G. Offer, P. Knight, R. Jeacocke, R. Almond, T. Cousins, J. Elsey, N. Parsons, A. Sharp, R. Starr, P. Purslow (Review paper) pp. 151-170.

Food Microstructure Vol. 8, Number 2, 1989

  • Influence of the extrusion process on characteristics and structure of pasta. M. A. Pagani, P. Resmini, G. Dalbon (Review paper) pp. 173-182.
  • Vacuole formation in wheat starchy endosperm. D. B. Bechtel, A. Frend, L. A. Kaleikau, J. D. Wilson, P. R. Shewry pp. 183-190.
  • Use of image analysis to predict milling extraction rates of wheats. A. D. Evers, R. P. Withey pp. 191-200.
  • Grittiness in a pasteurized cheese spread: A microscopic study. H. W. Modler, S. H. Yiu, U. K. Bollinger, M. Kaláb pp. 201-210.
  • The size distribution of casein micelles in camel milk. Z. Farah, M. W. Rüeggpp. 211-216.
  • Effect of heating to 200°C on casein micelles in milk: A metal shadowing and negative staining electron microscope study. V. R. Harwalkar, P. Allan-Wojtas, M. Kaláb pp. 217-224.
  • Composition and some properties of spray-dried retentates obtained by the ultrafiltration of milk. M. Kaláb, M. Caric, M. Zaher, V. R. Harwalkar pp. 225-234.
  • Fluorescence microscopy study on (1,3)-beta-D-glucan in barley endosperm.A. W. MacGregor, G. M. Ballance, L. Dushnicky pp. 235-244.
  • Microstructure of extruded mixtures of cereals and oil seed processing residues. A. Salgó, S. Török, S. Sándor pp. 245-252.
  • A method for light and scanning electron microscopy of drought-induced damage of resting peanut seed tissue. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 253-256.
  • Observation of seeding effects on fat bloom of dark chocolate. I. Hachiya, T. Koyano, K. Sato pp. 257-262.
  • Microstructure of nunas: Andean popping beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). S. C. Spaeth, D. G. Debouck, J. Tohme, J. van Beem pp. 263-270.
  • The effect of chloride salts on the texture, microstructure and stability of meat batters. A. Gordon, S. Barbut pp. 271-283.

Food Structure Vol. 9, Number 1, 1990

  • Effect of high-pressure homogenization on a sterilized infant formula: Microstructure and age gelation. Y. Pouliot, M. Britten, B. Latreille pp. 1-8.
  • Identification and characterization of cocoa solids and milk proteins in chocolate using X-ray microanalysis. B. E. Brooker pp. 9-22.
  • Microstructure and firmness of processed cheese manufactured from Cheddar cheese and skim milk powder cheese base. A. Y. Tamime, M. Kaláb, G. Davies, M. F. Younis pp. 23-38.
  • Polymorphism of triglycerides - a crystallographic review. L. Hernqvist(Tutorial paper) pp. 39-44.
  • Particle characteristics of flake cut meat. P. R. Sheard, A. Cousins, P. D. Jolley, C. A. Voyle (Review paper) pp. 45-56.
  • Porosity, specific gravity and air content in Blue cheeses. K. M. K. Kebary, H. A. Morris pp. 557-60.
  • An enzyme/surfactant treatment and filtration technique for the retrieval ofListeria monocytogenes from ice cream mix. K. A. Hale, S. Doores, R. A. Walshpp. 61-68.
  • Light and scanning electron microscopy of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Florunner) cotyledon after roasting. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 69-74.
  • A simple carrier for freezing difficult food samples in preparation for scanning electron microscopy. P. Allan-Wojtas pp. 75-76.

Food Structure Vol. 9, Number 2, 1990

  • The role of the interfacial protein film in meat batter stabilization. A. Gordon, S. Barbut pp. 77-90.
  • The effect of tumbling, sodium chloride and polyphosphates on the microstructure and appearance of whole-muscle processed meats. P. D. Velinov, M. V. Zhikov, R. G. Cassens pp. 91-96.
  • Microscopic measurement of apple bruises. N.-K. Kim, Y.-C. Hung pp. 97-104.
  • A method for the examination of the microstructure of stabilized peanut butter. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 105-108.
  • Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of peanut (Arachis hypogaeaL. cv. Florigiant) cotyledon after roasting. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 109-112.
  • Scanning electron microscopy: Tissue characteristics and starch granule variations of potatoes after microwave and conductive heating. J. Huang, W. M. Hess, D. J. Weber, E. A. Purcell. C. S. Huber pp. 113-122.
  • Thermographic behavior of coconut oil during wheat dough mixing: Evidence for a solid-liquid phase separation according to mixing temperature. C. Le Roux, D. Marion, H. Bizot, D. J. Gallant pp. 123-138.
  • Changes in the rheology and microstructure of ropy yogurt during heating. J. A. Tegatz, H. A. Morris pp. 133-138.
  • The role of cell wall structure in the hard-to-cook phenomenon in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). I. Shomer, N. Paster, P. Lindner, R. Vasiliver pp. 139-150.
  • Encapsulation of viscous high-fat foods in calcium alginate gel tubes at ambient temperature. I. A. Veliky, M. Kaláb pp. 151-154.
  • Food Microstructure - cumulative index. D. N. Holcomb pp. 155-173.

Food Structure Vol. 9, Number 3, 1990

  • The structure-function relationship of polymeric sorbents for colloid stabilization of beer. G. Basarová (Review paper) pp. 175-194.
  • The use of the scanning electron microscope in investigating container corrosion by canned foods and beverages. E. J. Helwig, H. E. Bibler (Tutorial paper) pp.195-202.
  • Application of microscopy in the paper industry: Case histories of the Mead Corporation. A. J. Leonardi, B. A. Blakistone, S. W. Kyryk (Tutorial paper) pp. 201-214.
  • Simulation of a penetrometric test on apples using Voronoi-Delaunay tesselation. A. C. Roudot, F. Duprat, E. Pietri pp. 215-222.
  • The adsorption of crystalline fat to the air-water interface of whipped cream.B. E. Brooker pp. 223-230.
  • Fat polymorphism and crystal seeding effects on fat bloom stability of dark chocolate. T. Koyano, I. Hachiya, K. Sato (Review paper) pp. 231-240.
  • Preparation of cereals and grain products for transmission electron microscopy. D. B. Bechtel (Tutorial paper) pp. 241-252.
  • Development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) endosperm varieties of varying hardness. J. M. Shull, A. Chandrashekar, A. W. Kirleis, G. Ejeta pp. 253-267.

Food Structure Vol. 9, Number 4, 1990

  • Gelation of myosin filament under high hydrostatic pressure. K. Yamamoto, T. Miura, T. Yasui pp. 269-278.
  • The microstructure of raw meat batters prepared with monovalent and divalent chloride salts. A. Gordon, S. Barbut pp. 279-296.
  • Rheological and microstructural changes of oat and barley starches during heating and cooling. K. Autio pp. 297-304.
  • The observation of the displacement of emulsifiers by confocal scanning laser microscopy. I. Heertje, J. Nederlof, H. A. C. M. Hendricks, E. H. Lucassen-Reynder pp. 305-316.
  • Microstructure of peanut seed: A review. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel (Review paper) pp. 317-328.
  • Crystal morphology of shortenings and margarines. P. Chawla, J. M. deMan, A. K. Smith (Tutorial paper) pp. 329-336.
  • Emulsifiers as additives in fats: Effect of polymorphic transformations and crystal properties of fatty acids and triglycerides. J. Aronhime, S. Sarig, N. Garti(Tutorial paper) pp. 337-352.

Food Structure Vol. 10, Number 1, 1991

  • Electron microscopic studies on the ultrastructure of curdlan and other polysaccharides in gels used in foods. T. Harada, Y. Kanzawa, K. Kanenaga, A. Koreeda, A. Harada (Review paper) pp. 1-18.
  • Relationship between microstructure and in vitro digestibility of starch in precooked leguminous seed flours. J. Tovar, A. de Francisco, I. Björck, N.-G. Asp pp. 19-26.
  • Effects of phosphate and citrate on the gelation properties of casein micelles in renneted ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilized concentrated milk. D. J. McMahon, P. A. Savello, R. J. Brown, M. Kaláb pp. 27-36.
  • Microstructure and firmness of labneh (high solids yoghurt) made from cow's, goat's and sheep's milks by a traditional method or by ultrafiltration. A. Y. Tamime, M. Kaláb, G. Davies, H. A. Mahdi pp. 37-44.
  • Structure and rheology of dairy products: A compilation of references with subject and author indexes. D. N. Holcomb (Bibliography) pp. 45-108.

Food Structure Vol. 10, Number 2, 1991

  • Influence of emulsifier on the competitive adsorption of whey protein in emulsions. J.-L. Courthauson, E. Dickinson, Y. Matsumura, A. Williams pp. 109-116.
  • Distribution of amylose and amylopectin in potato starch pastes: Effects of heating and Shearing. K. Svegmark, A.-M. Hermansson pp. 117-130.
  • Microstructure of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis cv. Express). A. Chilukuri. B. G. Swanson pp. 131-136.
  • Practical methods for identification of rice endosperm protein bodies and fecal protein particles in light microscopy. D. L. Barber, J. N. A. Lott, D. A. Harris pp. 137-144.
  • Recent developments in the application of X-ray microanalysis to the study of food systems. B. E. Brooker pp. 145-152.
  • Effect of extruder die temperature on texture and microstructure of restructured mechanically deboned chicken and corn starch. V. B. Alvarez. D. M. Smith, S. Flegler pp. 153-160.
  • Structures and properties of stabilized vitamin and carotenoid dry powders. V. E. Colombo, F. Gerber pp. 161-170.
  • Application of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis to investigate corrosion problems in plain and enamelled three piece welded food cans. J. E. Charbonneau pp. 171-184.

Food Structure Vol. 10, Number 3, 1991

  • Magnetic resonance imaging of cheese structure. M. Rosenberg, M. J. McCarthy, R. Kauten pp. 185-192.
  • Structure, meltability, and firmness of process cheese containing White cheese. M. Kaláb, H. W. Modler, M. Caric, S. Milanovic pp. 193-202.
  • Extrusion cooking of pea flour: Structural and immunocytochemical aspects.H. Ben-Hdech, D. J. Gallant, B. Bouchet, J. Gueguen, J.-P. Melcion pp. 203-212.
  • Comparison of the effects of three different grinding procedures on the microstructure of "old-fashioned" non-stabilized peanut butter. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 213-216.
  • Effect of irradiation and dielectric heating on soybean ultrastructure, trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities. E. Kovács, D. N. Lam, J. Beczner, I. Kisspp. 217-228.
  • Physicochemical and macromolecular properties of starch-cellulose fiber extrudates. R. Chinnaswamy, M. A. Hanna pp. 229-240.
  • Effect of chemical modification on the microstructure of raw meat batters. A. Gordon, S. Barbut pp. 241-254.
  • Textural and microstructural properties of frozen fish mince as affected by the addition of nonfish proteins and sorbitol. K. S. Yoon, C. M. Lee, L. A. Hufnagelpp. 255-266.
  • Ultrastructural evidence for temperature-dependent Ca2+ release from fish sarcoplasmic reticulum during rigor mortis. H. Ushio, S. Watabe, M. Iwamoto, K. Hashimoto pp. 267-275.

Food Structure Vol. 10, Number 4, 1991

  • Microstructural studies of gluten and a hypothesis on dough formation. T. Amend, H.-D. Belitz, pp. 277-288.
  • Light microscopy observations on the mechanism of dough development in Chinese steamed bread production. S. Huang, R. Moss pp. 289-294.
  • Scanning electron microscope observations of growth and ochratoxin-A production of Aspergillus alutaceus variety alutaceus (formerly A. ochraneuson gamma-irradiated barley. J. G. Szekely, W. S. Chelack, S. Delaney, R. R. Marquardt, A. A. Frohlich pp. 295-302.
  • Immunohistochemical techniques applied to raw and mildly heat treated meat systems. B. Egelandsdal, S. Kidman, A.-M. Hermansson pp. 303-316.
  • Pathology of turkey skeletal muscle: Implications for the poultry industry. A. A. Sosnicki, B. W. Wilson (Review paper), pp. 317-326.
  • Composition and structure of demineralized spray-dried milk permeate powder. M. Kaláb, M. Caric, S. Milanovic pp. 327-332.
  • Fat-holding in hamburgers as influenced by the different constituents of beef adipose tissue. A. Olsson, E. Tornberg pp. 333-344.
  • The effect of processing temperatures on the microstructure and firmness of labneh made from cow's milk by the traditional method or by ultrafiltration. A. Y. Tamime, M. Kaláb, G. Davies pp. 345-352.
  • The contribution of milk serum proteins to the development of whipped cream structure. E. C. Needs, A. Huitson pp. 353-360.
  • Natural systems for preventing contamination and growth of microorganisms in foods. K.-T. Chung, C. A. Murdock (Tutorial paper) pp. 361-374.

Food Structure Vol. 11, Number 1, 1992

  • A low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study of ice cream. I. Techniques and general microstructure. K. B. Caldwell, H. D. Goff, D. W. Stanley pp. 1-10.
  • A low-temperature scanning electron microscopy study of ice cream. II. Influence of selected ingredients and processes. K. B. Caldwell, H. D. Goff, D. W. Stanley pp. 11-24.
  • Distribution of aromatic compounds in coastal bermudagrass cell walls using ultraviolet absorption scanning microspectrophotometry. N. O. Ames, R. D. Hartley, D. E. Akin pp. 25-32.
  • Molecular strategies to improve protein quality and reduce flatulence in legumes: A review. B. O. de Lumen pp. 33-46.
  • Effects of processing on the microstructure of oat (Avena sativa) bran concentrate and the physicochemical properties of isolated beta-glucans. K. Autio, Y. Mälkki, T. Virtanen pp. 47-54.
  • Image analysis to determine intramuscular fat in muscle. T. Ishii, R. G. Cassens, K. K. Scheller, S. C. Arp, D. M. Schaefer pp. 55-60.
  • Structure and rheology of string cheese. S. Taneya, T. Izutsu, T. Kimura, T. Shioya pp. 61-72.
  • Effect of lactose and protein on the microstructure of dried milk. V. V. Mistry, H. N. Hassan, D. J. Robison pp. 73-82.

Food Structure Vol. 11, Number 2, 1992

  • Computer modeling: The adjunct micro technique for lipids. J. W. Hagemann, J. A. Rothfus (Review paper) pp. 85-100.
  • A moving optical fibre technique for structure analysis of heterogeneous products: Application to the determination of the bubble-size distribution in liquid foams. C. G. J. Bisperink, J. C. Akkerman, A. Prins, A. D. Ronteltap pp. 101-108.
  • A moving optical fibre technique for structure analysis of heterogeneous products: Application to different foodstuffs. J. C. Akkerman, C. G.J. Bisperink, A. D. Ronteltap pp. 109-114.
  • Characterization of the pore structure of starch based food materials.Z.Hicsasmaz, J. T. Clayton pp. 115-132.
  • Effect of chemical modifications on the stability, texture and microstructure of cooked meat batters. A. Gordon, S. Barbut (Review paper) pp. 133-146.
  • Structure of margarines made with low erucic acid rapeseed oil. J. Hojerová, S. Schmidt, J. Krempaský pp. 147-154.
  • Microstructure and texture of khoa. G. R. Patil, A. A. Patel, P. Allan-Wojtas, M. Kaláb pp. 155-164.
  • Effect of ionizing gamma-radiation on thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance intensities in milk protein concentrate powders. J. Kispéter, L. I. Horváth, L. I. Kiss pp. 165-170.
  • Microstructural differences among adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) cultivars. E. Engquist, B. G. Swanson pp. 171-180.
  • Scanning electron microscopy studies of a typical Spanish confectionery product "Xixona turrón". M. A. lluch, M. J. Galotto, A. Chiralt pp. 181-186.

Food Structure Vol. 11, Number 3, 1992

  • Mechanical properties of starch, protein, and endosperm and their relationship to hardness in wheat. G. M. Glenn, R. K. Johnston pp. 187-200.
  • Importance of enzymes to value-added quality of foods. J. R. Whitaker (Review paper) pp. 201-208.
  • Cryo-scanning electron microscopy investigation of the texture of cooked potatoes. J. T. van Marie, A. C. M. Clerkx, A. Boekestein pp. 209-216.
  • Effect of draw pH on the development of curd structure during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. L. J. Kiley, P. S. Kindstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano pp. 217-224.
  • Influence of addition of polyol and food emulsifiers on the retrogradation rate of starch. M. Miura, A. Nishimura, K. Katsuta pp. 225-236.
  • Light microscopy measurements of ice recrystallization in frozen corn starch pastes using isothermal freeze fixation. C. Ferrero, M. N. Martino, N. E. Zaritzky pp. 237-248.
  • Relating spectral observations of the agricultural landscape to crop yield. C. L. Wiegand, A. J. Richardson (Tutorial paper) pp. 249-258.
  • Scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet absorption microspectrophotometry of plant cell types of different biodegradabilities. E. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby pp. 259-272.
  • Functional properties and microstructure of chicken breast salt soluble protein gels as influenced by pH and temperature. S. F. Wang, D. M. Smith pp. 273-285.

Food Structure Vol. 11, Number 4, 1992

  • Identification of proteins and complex carbohydrates in some commercial low-fat dairy products by means of immunolocalization techniques. B. L. Armbruster, N. Desai pp. 289-300.
  • Characterization of food packaging materials by microscopic, spectrophotometric, thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis. I. R. Urzendowski, D. G. Pechak (Review paper) pp. 301-314.
  • Heat-induced structural changes in acid-modified barley starch dispersions.K. Autio, K. Poutanen, T. Suortti, E. Pessa pp. 315-322.
  • Ultrastructural changes in cherimoya fruit injured by chilling. M. Gutiérrez, M. del Mar Sola, L. Pascual, M. I. Rodríguez-García, A. M. Vargas pp. 323-332.
  • Scanning electron microscopy structure and firmness of papain treated apple slices. Y. Luo, M. E. Patterson, B. G. Swanson pp. 333-338.
  • The cellular structure of selected apple varieties. K. G. Lapsley, F. E. Escher, E. Hoehn pp. 339-350.
  • Objective measurement of the visual aspect of dry sausage slices by image analysis. A.-C. Roudot, F. Duprat, M.-G. Grotte, G. O'Lidha pp. 351-360.
  • Physicochemical properties of irradiation modified starch extrudates. A. S. Sokhey, R. Chinnaswamy pp. 361-371.
  • Thermal processing effects on rice characteristics. S.-M. Chang, H.-C. Yangpp. 373-382.

Food Structure Vol. 12, Number 1, 1993

  • Interfacial viscoelasticity in emulsions and foams. E. H. Lucassen-Reynders(Review paper) pp. 1-12.
  • Age related changes in the microstructure of Mozzarella cheese. L. J. Kiely, P. S. Kinstedt, G. M. Hendricks, J. E. Levis, J. J. Yun, D. M. Barbano pp. 13-20.
  • An apparatus for a new microcube encapsulation of fluid milk in preparation for transmission electron microscopy. M. C. Alleyne, D. J. McMahon, N. N. Youssef, S. Hekmat pp. 21-30.
  • Whey proteins as microencapsulating agents. Microencapsulation of anhydrous milkfat - structure evaluation. M. Rosenberg, S. L. Young pp. 31-42.
  • Lactose crystallization in spray-dried milk powders exposed to isobutanol. C. A. Aguilar, G. R. Ziegler pp. 43-50.
  • Mechanism of hard-to-cook defect in cowpeas: Verification via microstructure examination. K. Liu, Y.-C. hung, R. D. Phillips pp. 51-58.
  • A comparison of the effects of oven roasting and oil cooking on the microstructure of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Florigiant) cotyledon. C. T. Young, W. E. Schadel pp. 59-66.
  • Distribution and intracellular localization of titanium in plants after titanium treatment. G.Kelemen, A. Keresztes, E. Bácsy, M. Fehér, P. Fodor, I. Pais pp. 67-72.
  • Critical point drier as a source of contamination in food samples prepared for scanning electron microscopy. G. Larocque, A. F. Yang (Technical tip) pp. 73-74.
  • Microstructural studies in fat research. I. Heertje (Tutorial paper) pp. 77-94.
  • Practical aspects of electron microscopy in dairy research. M. Kaláb (Tutorial paper) pp. 95-114.
  • The stabilisation of air in foods containing fat - a review. B. E. Brooker(Tutorial paper) pp. 115-122.
  • Food microscopy and the nutritional quality of cereal foods. S. H. Yiu (Tutorial paper) pp. 123-133.

Food Structure Vol. 12, Number 2, 1993

  • Interfacial interactions, competitive adsorption and emulsion stability. J. Chen, E. Dickinson, G. Iveson pp. 135-146.
  • A comparative study of normal and hard-to-cook Brazilian common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Ultrastructural and histochemical aspects. E. Garcia, F. M. Lajolo, B. G. Swanson pp. 147-154.
  • Microstructure of black, green and red gram. E. Joseph, S. G. Crites, B. G. Swanson pp. 155-162.
  • Liquid holding capacity and structural changes during heating of fish muscle: Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and salmon (Salmo salar). R. Ofstad, S. Kidman, R. Myklebust, A.-M. Hermansson pp. 163-174.
  • Physico-chemical changes occurring in gamma irradiated flours studied by small-angle X-ray scattering. K Ciesla, T. Zóltowski, R. Diduszko pp. 175-180.
  • Microstructure and rheological properties of composites of potato starch granules and amylose: A comparison of observed and predicted structures. K. Svegmark, A.-M. Hermansson pp. 181-194.
  • Structure and composition of apple juice haze. T. Beveridge, V. Tait pp. 195-198.
  • Fluidization and its applications to food processing. N. C. Shilton, K. Niranjan(Tutorial paper) pp. 199-216.
  • Heat-induced structural changes in faba bean starch paste: The effect of steaming faba bean seeds. B. Kaczynska, K. Autio, J. Fornal pp. 217-224.
  • The surface coverage of fat on food powders analyzed by ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis). P. Fäldt, B. Bergenståhl, G. Carlsson pp. 225-234.
  • Three-dimensional molecular modeling of bovine caseins. H. M. Farrell Jr., E. M. Brown, T. F. Kumosinski pp. 235-250.
  • Microstructure of Mozzarella cheese during manufacture. C. J. Oberg, W. R. McManus, D. J. McMahon pp. 251-258.
  • Composition and microstructure of commercial full-fat and low-fat cheeses.V. V. Mistry, D. L. Anderson pp. 259-266.
  • Microstructure of whey protein/anhydrous milkfat emulsions. M. Rosenberg, S. L. Lee pp. 267-274.

Food Structure Vol. 12, Number 3, 1993

  • Development of the food microscopist. D. F. Lewis (Key note paper) pp. 275-284.
  • The stabilisation of air in cake batters - the role of fat. B. E. Brooker pp. 285-296.
  • Water-holding properties of milk protein products - a review. W. Kneifel, A. Seiler (Review paper) pp. 297-308.
  • Relationship between the starch granule structure and the textural properties of heat-induced surimi gels. V. Verrez-Bagnis, B. Bouchet, D. J. Gallant pp. 309-320.
  • Biodegradation of cell types in normal and brown midrib mutant pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L) R Br): Microspectrophotometric and electron microscopic studies of walls and wall layers. D. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby. W. W. Hanna pp. 321-332.
  • Microstructural approach to legume seeds for food uses. K. Saio, M. Monma(Tutorial paper) pp. 333-342.
  • Structure and function of food products: A review. I. Heertje (Key note paper) pp. 343-364.
  • A tutorial and comprehensive bibliography on the identification of foreign bodies found in food. D. F. Lewis (Tutorial paper) pp. 365-378.
  • Identification of radiation treatment of mineral-enriched milk protein concentrate by complex test protocols. A comparison of thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance, and rheological investigations. J. Kispéter, L. I. Horváth, K. Bajúsz-Kabók, L. I. Kiss, P. Záhonyi-Racs pp. 379-384.

Food Structure Vol. 12, Number 4, 1993

  • Luminescencce techniques to identify the treatment of foods by ionizing radiation. G. A. Schreiber, B. Ziegelmann, G. Quitzsch, N. Helle, K. W. Bögl(Review paper) pp. 385-396.
  • Properties of irradiated starches. A. S. Sokhey, M. A. Hanna (Tutorial paper) pp. 397-410.
  • Hydrocolloids as food emulsifiers and stabilizers.N. Garti, D. Reichman (Review paper) pp. 411-426.
  • Changes in the microstructure of a comminuted meat system during heating.P. A. Koolmees, G. Wijngaards, M. H. G.. Tersteeg, J. G. van Logtestijn pp. 427-442.
  • An overview of the role of fat in nutrition and formulation and its measurement in the live animal, meat carcass and processed meat products. P. B. Newman (Tutorial paper) pp. 443-456.
  • Microstructure and fat extractability in microcapsules based on whey proteins or mixtures of whey proteins and lactose. D. L. Moreau, M. Rosenberg pp. 457-468.
  • Structure-compressive stress relationships in mixed dairy gels. J. M. Aguilera, J. E. Kinsella, M. Liboff pp. 469-474.
  • High-resolution scanning electron microscopy of milk products: A new sample preparation procedure. W. R. McManus, D. J. McMahon, C. J. Oberg pp. 475-482.
  • Microstructure of idli. E. Joseph, S. G. Crites, B. G. Swanson pp. 483-488.
  • Baking properties and microstructure of yeast-raised breads containing wheat bran:carrageenan blends or laminates. P. R. Belisle, B. A. Rasco, K. Siffring, B. Bruinsma pp. 489-496.

Studies of Food Microstructure

Published in 1981 by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Inc., AMF O'Hare, IL 60666, USA
Editors: D. N. Holcomb, M. Kaláb
ISBN: 0-931288-22-3 Library of Congress Catalog Card. No.: 81-84080 1981

Table of contents:

SFMS numbers refer to pages in Studies of Food Microstructure, SEM numbers refer to the original location of the papers in Scanning Electron Microscopy.

Part I - General papers

  • Some examples of scanning electron microscopy in food science. R. J. Carroll, S. B. Jones (Review paper) SFMS pp. 1-8, SEM/1979/III:253-259.
  • Preparation of food science samples for SEM. J. F. Chabot (Review paper) SFMS pp. 9-16, SEM/1979/III:279-286, 298.
  • Application of scanning electron microscopy for the development of materials for food. C.-H. Lee, C. K. Rha (Review paper) SFMS pp. 17-24, SEM/1979/III:465-471.
  • The use of microscopy to explain the behaviour of foodstuffs - a review of work carried out at the Leatherhead Food Research Association. D. F. Lewis(Review paper) SFMS pp. 25-38, SEM/1981/III:391-404.
  • Identification of foreign matter in foods. J. T. Stasny, F. R. Albright, R. GrahamSFMS pp. 39-50, SEM/1981/III:599-610, 560.

Part II - Meat foods

  • Scanning electron microscopy in meat science. C. A. Voyle (Tutorial paper) SFMS pp. 51-60, SEM/1981/III:405-413.
  • Preparation of muscle samples for electron microscopy. H. D. Geissinger, D. W. Stanley (Tutorial paper) SFMS pp. 61-72, SEM/1981/III:415-426, 414.
  • The effect of catheptic enzymes on chilled bovine muscle. S. H. Cohen, L. R. Trusal SFMS pp. 73-78, SEM/1980/III:595-600.
  • Microscopical observation on electrically stimulated bovine muscle. C. A. VoyleSFMS pp. 79-86, SEM/1981/III:427-434.
  • Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of normal and PSE porcine muscle. J. D. Cloke, E. A. Davis, J. Gordon, S.-I. Hsieh, J. Grider, P. B. Addis, C. J. McGrath SFMS pp. 87-98, SEM/1981/III:435-446.
  • Identification of fat and protein components in meat emulsions using SEM and light microscopy. F. K. Ray, B. G. Miller, D. C. Van Sickle, E. D. Aberle, J. C. Forrest, M. D. Judge SFMS pp. 99-104, SEM/1979/III:473-478.
  • Meat emulsions - fine structure relationships and stability. R. J. Carroll, C. M. Lee SFMS pp. 105-110, SEM/1981/III:447-452.

Part III - Milk products, gels, and mayonnaise

  • Scanning electron microscopy of dairy products: An overview. M. Kaláb (Review paper) SFMS pp. 111-122, SEM/1979/III:261-272.
  • Electron microscopy of milk products: A review of techniques. M. Kaláb(Review paper) SFMS pp.123-142, SEM/1981/III:453-472.
  • Microstructure and rheology of process cheese. A. A. Rayan, M. Kaláb, C. A. Ernstrom SFMS pp. 143-152, SEM/1980/III:635-643.
  • Electron microscopy and sensory evaluation of commercial cream cheese. M. Kaláb, A. G. Sargant, D. A. Froehlich SFMS pp. 153-162, SEM/1981/III:473-482, 514.
  • Morphological, ultrastructural and rheological characterization of Cheddar and Mozzarella cheese. M. V. Taranto, P. J. Wan, S. L. Chen, K. C. Rha SFMS pp. 163-168, SEM/1979/III:273-278.
  • Morphological and textural characterization of soybean Mozzarella cheese analogs. M. V. Taranto, C. S. T. Yang SFMS pp.19-178, SEM/1981/III:483-492.
  • Possibilities of an electron-microscopic detection of buttermilk made from sweet cream in adulterated skim milk. M. Kaláb SFMS pp.179-186, SEM/1980/III:645-651.
  • A scanning electron microscopical investigation of the whipping of cream. D. G. Schmidt, A. C. M. van Hooydonk SFMS pp.187-192, 210, SEM/1980/III:653-658, 644.
  • A comparison of the microstructure of dried milk products by freeze-fracturing powder suspensions in non-aqueous media. W. Buchheim SFMS pp. 193-202, SEM/1981/III:493-502.
  • SEM investigation of the effect of lactose crystallization on the storage properties of spray-dried whey. M. Saltmarch, T. P. Labuza SFMS pp. 203-209, SEM/1980/III:659-665.
  • Effect of acidulants and temperature on microstructure, firmness and susceptibility to syneresis of skim milk gels. V. R. Harwalkar, M. Kaláb SFMS pp. 211-221, SEM/1981/III:503-513.
  • Structure of various types of gels as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). V. E. Colombo, P. J. Spath SFMS pp. 223-230, SEM/1981/III:515-522.
  • Microstructure of mayonnaise and salad dressing. M. A. Tung, L. J. Jones SFMS pp. 231-238, SEM/1981/III:523-530.

Part IV - Foods of plant origin

  • Scanning electron microscopy of soybeans and soybean protein products. W. J. Wolf, F. L. Baker (Review paper) SFMS pp. 239-252, SEM/1980/III:621-634.
  • Soybean seed-coat structural features: pits, deposits and cracks. W. J. Wolf, F. L. Baker, R. L. Bernard SFMS pp. 253-266, SEM/1981/III:531-544.
  • An SEM study of the effects of avian digestion on the seed coats of three common angiosperms. L. B. Smith SFMS pp. 267-274, SEM/1981/III:545-552.
  • Microstructure of traditional Japanese soybean foods. K. Saio (Review paper) SFMS pp. 275-282, SEM/1981/III:553-559.
  • Effects of exogenous enzymes on oilseed protein bodies. R. D. Allen, H. J. Arnott SFMS pp. 283-292, SEM/1981/III:561-570.
  • Tannin development and location in bird-resistant sorghum grain. P. Morrall, N. v. d. W. Liebenberg, C. W. Glennie SFMS pp. 293-298, SEM/1981/III:571-576.
  • Light microscopy of plant constituents in animal feeds. J. G. Vaughan (Tutorial paper) SFMS pp. 299-304, SEM/1981/III:577-582.
  • The relationship between wheat microstructure and flourmilling. R. Moss, N. L. Stenvert, K. Kingswood, G. Pointing SFMS pp. 305-312, SEM/1980/III:613-620.
  • Scanning electron microscopy of flour-water doughs treated with oxidizing and reducing agents. L. G. Evans, A. M. Pearson, G. R. Hooper SFMS pp. 313-322, SEM/1981/III:583-592.
  • Structural studies of carrots by SEM. E. A. Davis, J. Gordon (Tutorial paper) SFMS pp. 323-332, SEM/1980/III:601-611.
  • The microstructure of orange juice. G. G. Jewell SFMS pp. 333-338, SEM/1981/III:593-598.

Note: This page was compiled by M. Kaláb on December 28, 1998 and corrected, with apologies to the authors concerned, on February 13, 2014. Corrections: Page numbers in Food Microstructure 1(1) and in Food Microstructure 4(2) for authors R.J. Carroll et al. 

This page was compiled by M. Kaláb on December 28, 1998 and updated on March 17, 2011.