Final Examination for the Degree of PhD Food Science - ODAY ALRIFAI

Date and Time


Teams meeting (Invitation sent to grad student & research staff listservs; faculty send request for invite to Tricia)


Examining Committee
Dr. Iris Joye, Chair
Dr. Massimo Marcone, Advisor
Dr. Xiuming Hao, Advisory Committee Member
Dr. Loong-Tak Lim, Department Member
Dr. Giedre Samuoliene, Lithuanian Research Centre, External Examiner


ABSTRACT: Microgreens of Brassica (Crucifers) grown under novel amber and UV-A LED in controlled environments allows for selective accumulation of antioxidant phytochemicals. In this study, microgreens of B. rapa, B. juncea and R. sativus were compared for their phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. Extracts were examined using HPLC-DAD/LC-HRMS/MS and in vitro chemical methods (total phenolic, TPC; total flavonoid, TFC; total anthocyanin, TAC; total carotenoid). Microgreens grown under various ratios of increasing amber (590 nm) and blue (450 nm)/decreasing red (655 nm) (rbaLED) resulted in no general trend to TPC and TFC, no effect to TAC and largely a dose-dependent response with TCC. Overall hydrophilic antioxidant activities (DPPH, FRAP and ORAC) did not show a clear pattern while lipophilic antioxidant activity were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Under rbaLED, malate esters of hydroxycinnamic acids predominated the pool of phenolics and glucosinolate sinigrin was the highest and the most positively accumulated. Expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes was consistent with the accumulation of carotenoids. UV-A (325 nm, 340 nm, 365 nm, 385 nm) LED produced different responses in the microgreens. Overall trend under 340 nm did not benefit TPC and TFC; however, TAC was generally unchanged under overall lighting. TCC was generally highest under 325 nm and individual carotenoids were overall unchanged, except β-carotene increased and was consistent with CHXβ expression. Lutein was accumulated under 340 nm in PC and 385 nm in RR, and these corresponded with LYCβ expression. Glucosinolates were largely accumulated under 325/365 nm and decreased under 365 nm in PC, while GLS in RR/MO were significantly higher under 340/325 nm and in MS highest under 325 nm. Generally, phenolics were accumulated the greatest under 325 nm. Phenolics in RR, MO and MS had high affinity to 325 nm which also resulted in the highest contents, while PC phenolics had high affinity to both 325 nm and 385 nm. Overall, high-energy short wave UV-A (325 nm) benefitted TCC and related gene expression, GLS and phenolics, while increasing amber/blue LED dose benefitted TCC and lipophilic antioxidant activity.

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