Respiratory disease

A.  History

  • Provide information on herd/flock size, numbers of animals affected, animal age, onset/duration of problem, vaccination history, and any treatments administered.

B. Submitting samples

  • Select histology samples from several areas of affected and unaffected lung, including the junction between affected and unaffected lobules, if possible.
  • Please request specific tests, and submit separate tissue samples, in separate labeled Whirl-Pak bags, for each lab section.

C.  Samples required

Swine pneumonia

Histology: Formalin-fixed sections of SEVERAL pieces of lung from cranial and caudal lobes, including borders of affected and unaffected areas, trachea, bronchial lymph node.

• Immunohistochemistry is available on formalin-fixed tissues for PRRSV, PCV-2, influenza A virus.

Bacteriology: Affected areas of lung, pleural fluid/swab – routine culture.

• Atrophic rhinitis - submission of nasal swabs from several pigs is necessary.  Consult laboratory for numbers and to obtain swabs (provided for a fee) for testing.

Mycoplasmology:

M. hyopneumoniae PCR and molecular typing: lung, oral fluids. Note M. hyopneumoniae cannot be cultured.

M. hyorhinis PCR: lung. Mycoplasma culture.

Virology:

Serology:

• Serum samples from animals of various age groups for PRRSV, influenza A virus (H1N1, H3N2), M. hyopneumoniae, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Consult lab for submission details - e.g., the number of samples to be submitted, age of animals to be sampled.

• PCR: Influenza A, PRRSV, PCV-2,3: lung, tonsil, nasal swabs in virus transport medium.

• ELISA: PRRSV, M. hyopneumoniae, PRCV (antigenically distinguishable from TGEV)

• HI: paired sera for Influenza A virus (H1N1, H3N2)

• Herd screening: APP serology is only useful on a herd basis. Please phone the laboratory before submitting large numbers of sera.

Bovine pneumonia

Histology: Formalin-fixed sections of SEVERAL pieces of lung from cranial and caudal lobes, including borders of affected and unaffected areas, trachea, bronchial lymph nodes.

• Immunohistochemistry is available on formalin-fixed tissues for BVDV, BCV, BoHV-1 (IBRV), BRSV.

BacteriologyAffected areas of lung, pleural fluid/swab, tracheobronchial aspirate, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid – routine culture.

Mycoplasmology:

Mycoplasma bovis PCR and/or culture: lung from the borders of pneumonic areas. Deliver or freeze immediately.

Virology:

• PCR for BVDV, BoHV-1/IBRV, BRSV, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza 3 virus: lung, trachea, nasal swabs.

Note: BoHV-1 (IBRV), BRSV, and PI3 are included in the bovine respiratory panel PCR (brvp3).

Serology: BoHV-1 (IBRV), BPIV-3, BRSV, bovine coronavirus (BCV), BVDV 1 and 2, and bovine adenovirus (BAdV): submit paired sera from affected animal and/or survivors/herdmates.

Parasitology:  Feces for Baermann for lungworm larvae.

Sheep/goat pneumonia

Histology: Formalin-fixed sections of SEVERAL pieces of lung from cranial and caudal lobes, including borders of affected and unaffected areas, trachea, bronchial lymph node.

        • Immunohistochemistry is available for small ruminant lentiviruses CAEV, MVV.

Bacteriology: Affected areas of lung, pleural fluid/swab – routine culture.

Mycoplasmology: Frozen or fresh lung for Mycoplasma culture.

Virology: BoHV-1, BRSV, BPIV-3 (Bovine respiratory PCR panel).

Serology: OPP, CAEV serology.

Parasitology:  Feces for regular flotation, and for Baermann for larvae of lungworm.

Equine pneumonia

Histology: Formalin-fixed sections of SEVERAL pieces of lung from cranial and caudal lobes, including borders of affected and unaffected areas, trachea, bronchial lymph node.

        • Immunohistochemistry is available for EHV-1.

Bacteriology: Affected areas of lung, pleural fluid/swab, tracheobronchial aspirate, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Mycoplasmology: Frozen or fresh lung, pleural fluid for culture.

Virology:

        • PCR for EHV-1, influenza A: lung, bronchial lymph nodes, nasal/pharyngeal swabs.

Serology: Paired sera for EHV-1, EHV-2, equine rhinitis A/B viruses, influenza A virus.

Dog/cat pneumonia

Histology: Formalin-fixed sections of SEVERAL pieces of lung from cranial and caudal lobes, including borders of affected and unaffected areas, trachea, bronchial lymph node, heart, liver, kidney, spleen.

• Immunohistochemistry is available on formalin-fixed tissues for canine distemper virus (CDV), feline coronavirus (FIP), feline herpesvirus, influenza A virus.

Bacteriology: Affected areas of lung, pleural fluid/swab, tracheobronchial aspirate, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Virology:

• Canid herpesvirus I (CaHV-1), canine adenovirus 2 (CAdV-2), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) triplex PCR (chappcr).

• Feline calicivirus, felid herpesvirus PCR panel (fcfhpcr).

• Canine distemper virus (CDV) PCR: lung, retropharyngeal/bronchial lymph nodes, kidney, bladder, brain, tonsillar or conjunctival scrapings.

• Influenza A virus PCR: lung, tonsillar or conjunctival scrapings.

Serology: Paired serology for influenza A virus, canine adenovirus (CAdV), CIPV, CPIV (canine parainfluenza virus) CaHV