Salmonella Dublin in a goat kid
Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON
AHL Newsletter 2021;25(4):9.
Following the sudden death of a one-week-old dairy goat kid, a range of formalin-fixed and frozen tissues were submitted to the AHL for histopathology and bacterial culture. Histologic lesions were comprised of a neutrophilic enteritis, suppurative peritonitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, embolic hepatic necrosis and multi-organ thrombosis. Bacterial culture of the intestinal content, kidney and liver each isolated a culture of Group D Salmonella spp., later serotyped as Salmonella Dublin. Additional history revealed a group of veal calves had recently been introduced onto the farm, and that calves had been in close contact with this goat kid.
Salmonella Dublin was first detected in cattle in Ontario in 2012, and continues to be an important pathogen for the Ontario bovine dairy industry. The transmission of S. Dublin typically occurs via the fecal-oral route. The presence of an infected non-clinical carrier in the herd provides a source of long-term environmental contamination. Carrier animals will intermittently shed the bacterium in manure, milk, saliva, and urine leading to clinical infection of susceptible animals. Primary colonization of the bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract is followed by bacteremia and systemic spread to organs including lung, liver, spleen and kidneys. In calves, S. Dublin infection generally presents clinically as septicemia and pneumonia, often accompanied by fever, anorexia, and depression. Bloody diarrhea, arthritis and/or meningitis may also occur. Calves that survive the infection may become carriers for life. Identifying carrier animals is challenging, and improving biosecurity, sanitation, and colostrum quality are the mainstays for reducing the risk of disease transmission.
S. Dublin has been documented in the literature as causing disease in goats, however, it is considered uncommon and case reports are sparse. To date, this is only the second case (the first in 2018) where S. Dublin has been diagnosed as the cause of septicemia and death in a goat kid at the AHL. AHL
Rosenbaum Nielsen L. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle. Vet Microbiol 2013;162(1):1-9.