Publications

There are several ways of studying visual attention, in addition to research conducted in the DRiVE lab this section contains articles from basic research studies conducted with or by Dr. Lana Trick.

Boldfaced names indicate student collaborators.

Journal Articles

Nowosielski, R., Trick, L.M., Toxopeus, R. (2018). Good distraction: Individual and situational predictors of successful multi-tasking while driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 111, 202-209.

Lochner, M. J. & Trick, L. M. (2014). Multiple-object tracking while driving: The multiple-vehicle tracking task. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics, 76, 2326-2345.

Brodeur, D.A., Trick, L.M., Flores, H., Marr, C., & Burack, J.A. (2013). Multiple-object tracking among individuals with Down syndrome and typically developing children. Development & Psychopathology.

Trick, L.M., Brandigampola, S., & Enns, J.T. (2012). How fleeting emotions affect hazard perception and steering while driving: The impact of image arousal and valence. Accident Analysis & Prevention.

Trick, L.M., Mutreja, R., & Hunt, K. (2012). Spatial and visuo-spatial working memory tests predict performance in classic multiple-object tracking in young adults but non-spatial measures of the executive do not. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics.

Mueller, A., & Trick, L.M. (2012). Driving in fog: The effects of driving experience and visibility on speed compensation and hazard avoidance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 48, 472-479.

Trick, L.M., Toxopeus, R., & Wilson, D. (2010). The effects of visibility conditions, traffic density, and navigational challenge on speed compensation and driving performance in drivers of difference ages. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42(6), 1661-1671.

Roney, C.J.R., & Trick, L.M. (2009). Sympathetic magic and perceptions of randomness: The hot hand versus the gambler’s fallacy. Thinking and Reasoning, 15(2), 197-210.

Trick, L.M. (2008). More than superstition: Differential effects of featural heterogeneity and change on subitizing and counting. Perception and Psychophysics, 70(5), 743-760.

Reed-Jones, R.J., Vallis, L.A., Reed-Jones, J.G., Trick, L.M. (2008). The relationship between postural stability and virtual environment adaptation. Neuroscience Letters, 435(3), 204-209.

Reed-Jones, J.G., Trick, L.M., & Matthews, M. (2008). Testing assumptions implicit in the use of the 15-second rule as an early predictor of whether an in-vehicle device produces unacceptable distraction. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(2), 628-634.

Dickey, J.P, Oliver, M.L., Boileau, P., Eger, T.R., Trick, L.M., & Edwards, A. M. (2007). Multi-axis sinusoidal whole-body vibrations: Part I – How long should the vibration and rest exposures be for reliable measures? Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration, and Active Control, 175-184.

Dickey, J.P , Eger, T.R., Oliver, M., Boileau, P., Trick, L.M., & Edwards, A.M. (2007). Multi-axis sinusoidal whole-body vibrations: Part II - Relationship between Vibration Total Value and discomfort varies between vibration axes. Journal of Low Frequency Noise, Vibration, and Active Control, 26(3), 195-204.

Trick, L.M., Guindon, J., & Vallis, L. (2006). Sequential tapping interferes selectively with multiple-object tracking: Do finger-tapping and tracking share a common resource? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59(7), 1188-1195.

Trick, L.M. (2005). The role of working memory in spatial enumeration: Patterns of selective interference in subitizing and counting. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12(4), 675-681.

Trick, L.M., Jaspers-Fayer, F., & Sethi, N. (2005). Multiple-object tracking in children: The "Catch the Spies" task. Cognitive Development, 20(3), 373-387.

Trick, L.M., Perl, T., & Sethi, N. (2005). Age-related differences in multiple-object tracking. Journal of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60B(2), 102-105.

Trick, L.M., Enns, J.T., Mills, J., & Vavrik, J. (2004). Paying attention behind the wheel: A framework for studying the role of selective attention in driving. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomic Science, 5(5), 385-424.

Trick, L.M., Audet, D., & Dales, L. (2003). Age differences in enumerating things that move: Implications for the development of multiple-object tracking. Memory and Cognition, 31(8), 1229-1237.

Roney, C.J.R., & Trick, L.M. (2003). Grouping and gambling: A Gestalt approach to the Gambler's Fallacy. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57(2), 69-75.

Trick, L.M., & Enns, J.T. (1998). Life-span changes in attention: The visual search task. Cognitive Development, 13(3), 369-386.

Trick, L.M., & Enns, J.T. (1997). Clusters precede shapes in perceptual organization. Psychological Science, 8(2), 124-129.

Trick, L.M., & Enns, J.T. (1997). Measuring preattentive processes: When is pop out not enough? Visual Cognition, 4(2), 163-198.

Trick, L.M., Enns, J.T., & Brodeur, D.A. (1996). Life-span changes in visual enumeration: The number discrimination task. Developmental Psychology, 32(5), 925-932. Article selected by Brown and Benchmark Publishers (part of the Dushkin Publishing Group) to be part of the ELITE (Extended Library Individualized to Education) program.

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1994). Why are small and large numbers enumerated differently? A limited capacity preattentive stage in vision. Psychological Review, 101 (1), 80-102.

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1994). Cueing and counting: Does the position of the attentional focus affect enumeration? Visual Cognition, 1(1), 67-100.

Pylyshyn, Z., Burkell, J., Fisher, B., Sears, C., Schmidt, W., & Trick, L. (1994). Multiple parallel access in visual attention. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48(2), 260-283.

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z.W., (1993). What enumeration studies can show us about spatial attention: Evidence for limited capacity preattentive processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19(2), 331-351.

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1990). Subitizing, counting and FINSTs. Western Journal of Graduate Research, 2(1), 50-58.

Trick, L., & Katz, A. (1989). The Domain Interaction approach to metaphor processing: Relating individual differences and metaphor characteristics. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 1(3), 185-213.

Edited Books

Fisher, D., Caird, J., Horrey, W., & Trick, L.M. (2016) Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Research, Practice, Policy and Directions. Don Dedrick and Lana Trick (Eds). CRC Press.

Dedrick, D., & Trick, L.M. (2009) Computation, Cognition, and Pylyshyn. Don Dedrick and Lana Trick (Eds). Cambridge, Mass: MIT press.
MIT Press Book Website.

Book Chapters

Tannock, R. & Trick, L. M. (2016). Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). In Donald Fisher, William Horrey, Jeff Caird, and Lana Trick (Eds.), Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Research, Practice, Policy and Directions (pp. 211-228). CRC Press.

Fisher, D. L., Caird, J. K., Horrey, W. J., & Trick, L. M. (2016). Introduction to the Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers. Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Research, Practice, Policy and Directions (CRC Press) (pp. 3-10). CRC Press.

Fisher, D. L., Lenne, M. G., Trick, L. M., & Horrey, W. (2016). Driving simulators: Models, methods, and measurement - The teen driver. Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Research, Practice, Policy and Directions (CRC Press) (pp. 395-408). CRC Press.

Fisher, D. L., Caird, J. K., Horrey, W. J., & Trick, L. M. (2016). The Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Afterward. Handbook of Teen and Novice Drivers: Research, Practice, Policy and Directions (CRC Press) (pp. 459-466). CRC Press.

Trick, L.M & Caird, J.K. (2011). Methodological challenges in conducting research on older drivers. In D. Fisher, M. Rizzo, J. Caird, and J. Lee (Editors). Handbook of Driving Simulation for Engineering, Medicine, and Psychology (pp. 355-366).

Trick, L., Hollinsworth, H., & Brodeur, D. (2009). Multiple-object tracking across the lifespan: Do different factors contribute to diminished performance in different age groups? In Don Dedrick and Lana Trick (Eds). Computation, Cognition, and Pylyshyn. MIT press.

Trick, L. M., & Enns, J.T. (2009). A two-dimensional framework for understanding the role of attentional selection in driving. In Candida Castro (Ed.) Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving. (pp. 63- 73). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Enns, J.T., & Trick, L.M. (2006). A framework for studying age-related change and individual variation in selective attention. In Ellen Bialystok and Fergus Craik (Eds.) Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of change. (pp. 43-56) Oxford University Press.

Enns, J.T., Brodeur, D.A., & Trick, L.M. (1998). Selective attention over the lifespan: Behavioral measures. In J. Richards (ed.) Cognitive neuroscience of attention: A developmental perspective. (pp. 393-418). Manwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Brodeur, D.A., Trick, L.M., & Enns, J.T. (1997). Selective attention. In J. Burack and J. Enns (eds.). Attention, development, and psychopathology. (pp. 74-94.). NY, USA: Guildford Press.

Trick, L.M. (1992). A theory of enumeration that grows out of a general theory of vision: Subitizing, counting, and FINSTs. In Jamie Campbell (ed.) Nature and Origin of Mathematical Skills, Elsevier Press.

Abstracts

Trick, L.M, Toxopeus, R., & Wilson, D. (2010). Age and guile vs. youthful exuberance: Sensory and attentional challenges as they affect performance in older and younger drivers. [Abstract]. Journal of Vision , 10(7): 488; doi:10.1167/10.7.488.

Reed Jones, J.G., Dedrick, D., & Trick, L.M. (2010). Enumeration and blindsight: A case study. [Abstract] Journal of Vision ,10(7): 898; doi:10.1167/10.7.898.

Reed-Jones, R.J.,Vallis, L.A., Reed-Jones, J.G., & Trick,L.M. (2008). Top-down influence on a visually-evoked locomotor steering response. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders , 14 (Supplement 1): S36 [Abstract].

Vallis was primary supervisor of RJ Reed-Jones and Trick supervised JG Reed-Jones contribution.

Trick, L., & Orr, L. (2006). The role of object properties in item individuation: The effects of item heterogeneity and change. [Abstract] Journal of Vision , 6(6), 776a. Abstract 776.

Refereed Conference Proceedings

2018 Conferences

Toxopeus, R., Atalla, S., Kodsi, S., & Oliver, M. (2018). Driver perception-response time to midblock crossing pedestrians. Paper #18SS-0213 accepted for publication and presentation at the 2018 Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2018.

Atalla, S., Toxopeus, R., Kodsi, S., & Oliver, M. (2018). Driver perception-response time to left-turning vehicles at traffic signal controlled intersections. Paper #18SS-0210 accepted for publication and presentation at the 2018 Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2018.

Toxopeus, R., Atalla, S., Kodsi, S., & Oliver, M. (2018). Driver perception-response time to cyclist path intrusions. Paper #18SS-0209 accepted for publication and presentation at the 2018 Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress, Detroit, MI, April 2018.

2017 Conferences

Filio, D., Oliver, M., Dony, L., Gonzalez, D. (2017). Head mounted displays versus wrap around screens: The effect of display modality on driver response to unexpected pedestrian crossings during simulated driving.  Accepted for publication and presentation consideration to Driving Assessment 2017, Manchester Village, Vermont, June 2017. (D. Filio won one of two Honorable Mention Awards for the Honda Outstanding Student Award)

Rodd, H. & Trick, L. M. (2017). Predictors of mind-wandering while driving. International Symposium for Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design.

Nowosielski, R. & Trick, L. M. (2017). How common in-car distractions affect driving performance in simple and complex driving environments. International Symposium for Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design.

2016 Conferences

Filio, D., Gonzalez, D., Dony, L., Toxopeus, R. & Oliver, M. (2016). Comparison between driver responses to unexpected pedestrian crossings when using a head-mounted display versus 300 degree wrap around screens in a fixed-base driving simulator. Presented and published at the 9th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Association for Research on Work and Health, Toronto, Ontario, October 2016.

Gonzalez, D., Filio, D., Dony, L., Toxopeus, R. & Oliver, M. (2016). Comparison between 90 degree turn characteristics when using a head-mounted display versus 300 degree wrap around screens in a fixed-base driving simulator. Presented and published at the 9th Biennial Conference of the Canadian Association for Research on Work and Health, Toronto, Ontario, October 2016.

Dony, L., Gonzalez, D., Filio, D. & Oliver, M. (2016). Muscle activity differences between Oculus Rift™ and wrap around screens during turning manoeuvers in a full size, fixed base driving simulator. Presented and published at the 19th Biannual Meeting of the Canadian Society for Biomechanics, Hamilton, Ontario, July 2016.

Lochner, M. J. & Trick, L. M. (2016). Tracking road vehicles in heterogenous vs homogenous colour sets. Australasian Road Safety Conference. Conference Sept 6-8, 2016, Canberra, Austalia.

2015 Conferences

Ramkhalawansingh, R., & Trick, L.M. (2015) Too close for comfort: Evaluating a reward based approach to increase drivers' headway. Poster at 8th International Symposium on Human Factors in Drivign Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Lochner, M., & Trick, L.M. (2015) The effects of task load and vehicle heterogeneity on performance in the multiple vehicle tracking task. Poster at 8th International Symposium on Human Factors in Drivign Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Cortens, B., & Trick, L.M., & Nonnecke, B. (2015) The impact of key size on touchscreen performance and driving. Transportation Research Board. Washington DC, USA.

2014 Conferences

Toxopeus, R., & Trick, L.M. (2014) A look at driver and passenger gender effects in young drivers Poster at 24th annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Ryerson University. Toronto, Ontario.

Dienes, N., & Trick, L.M. (2014) Is search for Kanizsa illusory contours always inefficient? Poster at 24th annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Ryerson University. Toronto, Ontario.

Trick, L.M., & Reed-Jones J.G., (2014) Item-individuation as measured by quantification and tracking performance in the blind field of an individual with cortical blindness. Poster at 24th annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Ryerson University. Toronto, Ontario.

Dienes, N., & Trick, L.M. (2014) Enumeration of illusory contour figures II: Kanizsa figures. Poster at Banff Annual Cognitive Science Seminar Banff, Alberta.

Dienes, N., & Trick, L.M. (2014) Tracking illusory contour figures Poster at Vision Sciences Society St. Pete's Beach, Florida.

Flores, H., Brodeur, D., Trick, L.M., & Burack J.A. (2014) Catch the spies: Multiple-object tracking in low-functioning children with Autism Spectrum Disorder International Meeting for Autism Research (IMFAR) Atlanta, Georgia.

2013 Conferences

Trick, L.M., & Toxopeus, R. (2013). How missing a treatment of Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended Release affects performance in teen drivers with ADHD. Paper at 7th International Symposium on Human Factors in Driving Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. June 17-20, 2013. Bolton, NY.

Ramkhalawansingh, R., Nonnecke, B., & Trick, L.M. (2013) Rewarding safe driving: An intervention against driver tailgating. Poster at 23rd annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta.

Cortens, B.P., Nonnecke, B., & Trick, L.M. (2013) Does size matter? The effect of touch-screen key size on driving. Poster at 23rd annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science University of Calgary. Calgary, Alberta.

Mueller, A., & Trick, L.M. (2013). Effect of driving experience on change detection based on target relevance and size. Poster at the 7th International Symposium on Human Factors in Driving Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. June 17-20, 2013. Bolton, NY. Winner of the Honda Outstanding Student Paper award.

Toxopeus, R., Ramkhalawansingh, R., & Trick, L.M. (2013). The influence of passengers on driving in young drivers with varying levels of experience. Hybrid Poster/Paper 7th International Symposium on Human Factors in Driving Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. June 17-20, 2013. Bolton, NY.

Reed-Jones, J.G., & Trick, L.M. (2013) Multiple-object tracking in various fields of view. Poster at Vision Sciences Society Naples, Florida.

Dienes, N., & Trick, L.M. (2013) Enumeration of illusory contour figures. Poster at Vision Sciences Society Naples, Florida.

Trick, L.M., Toxopeus, R., Jain, U., & Saliba, K. (2013) Effects of Multi-Layer Release Methylphenidate on driving in individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as a function of driver age. Poster at Vision Sciences Society Naples, Florida.

2012 Conferences

Mueller, A., & Trick, L.M. (2012) Effects of vantage point on information selection strategies in driving scenes. Poster at 22rd annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Kingston, Ontario.

Ramkhalawansingh, R., Trick, L.M., & Nonnecke, B. (2012) Rewarding Safe Driving: Encouraging Safer Headways with an In-Vehicle Display. Poster at 22rd annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Kingston, Ontario.

Subasi, E., & Trick, L.M. (2012) Sensory, attentional, and working memory challenge as they affect driving performance and speed compensation in novice drivers. Poster at 22rd annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Kingston, Ontario.

Famewo , J., Trick, L.M., & Nonnecke, B. (2012) How does driving experience affect allocation of attention in complex intersections? Paper published in the proceedings of Vision in Vehicles XI. Conference was in 2006 but Proceedings were delayed till 2012.

2011 Conferences

Reed-Jones, J.G., & Trick, L.M. (2011) Judging relative numerosity without seeing: A blindsight study. Poster at Society for Neuroscience Washington, D.C.

Toxopeus, R., Ramkhalawansingh , R., & Trick, L.M. (2011) The influence of passenger-driver interaction on teenage drivers. Proceedings for 6th International Symposium on Human Factors in Driving Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design Lake Tahoe, California.

Lochner, M., & Trick, L.M. (2011). Attentional tracking of multiple vehicles in a highway driving scenario. Proceedings for 6th International Symposium on Human Factors in Driving Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. Lake Tahoe, California.

Jain, U., Trick, L.M., Turgay, A., Saliba, K., & Donnelly, G. 2011 Driving risk in adult ADHD patients. Poster presented at 3rd International Conference on ADHD Berlin, Germany.

Brodeur, D.A., Trick, L.M., Flores, H., Marr, C., & Burack, J. 2011 Multiple-object tracking in individuals with Down syndrome. Poster presented at Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) Montreal, Quebec.

2010 Conferences

Mueller, A., & Trick, L.M. (2010) Detection of changes in driving environments: Effects of task relevance and size. Poster at 20th annual meeting of the Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Reed-Jones J.G., Dedrick, D., & Trick, L.M. (2010) Blindsight and enumeration: A case study Poster at Vision Sciences Society Naples, Florida.

Trick, L.M., Toxopeus, R., & Wilson, D. (2010) Age and guile vs. youthful exuberance: Sensory and attentional challenges as they affect performance in older and younger drivers. Poster at Vision Sciences Society Naples, Florida.

2009 Conferences

Jackiewicz, G.B., & Trick, L.M. (2009) The effects of Mixed Amphetamine Salts on driving in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Poster at Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Toronto, Ontario.

Jackiewicz, G.B., & Trick, L.M. (2009) The effects of Mixed Amphetamine Salts on driving in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Poster at ESCAP International Conference Budapest, Hungary.

Trick, L.M., Lochner, M., Toxopeus, R., & Wilson, D. (2009). Manipulating drive characteristics to study the effect of mental load on older and younger drivers. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Human Factors in Driving Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. Big Sky, Montana: June, 2009.

Reed-Jones, J.G., Reed-Jones, R.J., Trick, L.M., & Vallis, L.A. (2009). Comparing techniques to reduce simulator adaptation syndrome and improve naturalistic behaviour during simulated driving. Proceedings for the 5th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. Big Sky, Montana, USA: June, 2009.

Jackiewicz , G.B., Trick, L.M., Wilson, D., Reed-Jones, J.G., & Le Moine, D. (2009) The effects of Mixed Amphetamine Salts on driving in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Poster at 2nd International Conference on ADHD Vienna, Austria.

2008 Conferences

Wang, X., Matsakis, P., Trick, L., Nonnecke, B., & Veltmann, M. (June 23-24, 2008). A study on how humans describe relative positions of image objects. Spatial Data Handling L SDG- SAGEO 2008 conference, Montpelier, France.

2007 Conferences

Reed-Jones R.J., Vallis, L. A., Reed-Jones, J.G., & Trick, L.M. (November 2007). Visual contributions to postural control following virtual environment exposure. Proceedings of the Society for Neuroscience , San Diego, California, USA.

Reed-Jones R.J., Vallis, L. A., Reed-Jones, J.G., & Trick, L.M. (July 2007). Can galvanic vestibular simulation reduce simulator adaptation syndrome? Published in proceedings for 4th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design. Skamania Lodge Stevenson, Washington USA. Winner of the Honda Outstanding Student Paper Award.

Reed-Jones R.J., Vallis, L. A., Reed-Jones, J.G., & Trick, L.M. (2007). Postural instability following immersion in a virtual environment driving simulator. Published in proceedings for Ontario Biomechanics Conference.

Mutreja R., & Trick, L.M. (2007). Verbal, Visuospatial and Executive Working Memory in Multiple Object Tracking Poster presented at American Psychological Association San Francisco, California.

Desroches, P., Varden, A., Nonnecke, B., & Trick, L. (April 16-19 2007). Validating driving simulators: Do simulators and circuit tracks yield similar results for moose-related research? Poster presented to SAE World Congress and Exhibition , SAE technical paper 07B-507 Booth B3a. Detroit, Michigan.

Desroches, P., Varden, A., Nonnecke, B., & Trick, L. (2007). Using simulators to expand moose perception data: Some results and validity issues. Poster presented to SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) World Congress and Exhibition Detroit, Michigan.

Reed-Jones, J., Trick, L., & Matthews, M. (January 22 2007). Acceptable distraction? Evaluating the effects of in-vehicle technologies on driving. Conference proceedings for the annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board , Washington, DC.

2006 Conferences

Famewo, J., Trick, L.M., & Nonnecke, B. (2006). How does driving experience affect allocation of attention in complex signalled intersections? Published in conference proceedings by Vision in Vehicles Dublin, Ireland.

Trick, L.M., & Orr, E. 2006 The role of object properties in item individuation: The effects of item heterogeneity and change. Poster presented at Vision Sciences Society Sarasota, Florida.

Desroches, P., Trick, L. & Nonnecke, B. (2006). The impact of navigation systems on the perception time of young and older drivers. SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) Proceedings. Detroit, Michigan.

Desroches, P., Trick, L. & Nonnecke, B. (2006). The impact of navigation systems on the perception time of young and older drivers. Poster presented at SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers). Detroit, Michigan.

2005 Conferences

Ojala, J., & Trick, L.M. (2005). The effects of verbal and spatial secondary tasks on spatial enumeration. Poster presented at Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Montreal, Quebec.

Famewo, J., & Trick, L.M. (2005). Why does manual tapping interfere with visual-spatial enumeration: The impact of response modality. Poster presented at Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Montreal, Quebec.

Hollinsworth, H., & Trick, L.M. (2005). Age-related differences in multiple-object tracking: Can differences in working memory account for the improvement in performance? Poster presented at Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Montreal, Quebec.

Desroches, P., Trick, L.M., Nonnecke, B., & Vallis L.A. (2005). The influence of travel navigation systems on perception time. Poster presented at Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Montreal, Quebec.

2004 Conferences

Noel, E., Nonnecke, B., & Trick, L.M (2004). A comprehensive learnability evaluation method for in-car navigation devices. Copyright SAE International (05AE-127). Detroit, Michigan.

Trick, L.M. (2004). Age differences in multiple-object tracking. Paper presented Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science St. Johns, Newfoundland.

Roney, C., & Trick, L.M. (2004). Grouping and heuristic processes in the Gambler's Fallacy and Hot Hand. Paper presented Canadian Psychological Association Annual Conference St. Johns, Newfoundland.

2003 Conferences

Trick, L.M., & Enns, J. (2003). Driving and selective attention: A conceptual framework for understanding the role of selective attention in vehicle crashes Paper presented at Vision in Vehicles Granada, Spain.

Trick, L.M., & Perl, T. (2003). Age-related changes in the effect of response uncertainty. Poster presented Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Hamilton, Ontario.

Trick, L.M. (2003). Patterns of selective interference for a visual and manual task Paper presented International Multi-sensory Research Forum Hamilton, Ontario.

2002 Conferences

Trick, L.M., Dales, L., & Audet, D. (2002). Enumerating items as they move: Item individuation and tracking. Poster presented Canadian Society for Brain Behaviour and Cognitive Science Victoria, British Columbia.

1991 Conferences

Trick, L.M. (1991). Preattentive and attentive processes in enumeration: Colour versus Brightness Contrast Poster presented Psychonomics Society San Francisco, California.

1990 Conferences

Trick, L.M. (1990). Preattentive and attentive processes in enumeration: Occasions when conjunctions are subitized Poster presented Canadian Psychological Association Annual Conference Ottawa, Ontario.

1989 Conferences

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z. (1989). Subitizing and the FINST spatial index model Paper presented Psychonomics Society Atlanta, Georgia.

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z. (1989). Preattentive indexing and visual counting: FINSTs and the enumeration of concentric items. Paper presented Cognitive Science Society Ann Arbour, Michigan.

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z. (1989). Preattentive item indexing and subitizing. Poster presented Canadian Psychological Association Annual Conference Halifax, Nova Scotia.

1988 Conferences

Trick, L.M., & Pylyshyn, Z. (1988). Spatial attention and subitizing: An investigation of the FINST hypothesis Poster presented Cognitive Science Society Montreal, Quebec.

Trick, L.M. (1988). Spatial attention and counting. Paper presented Canadian Psychological Association Annual Conference Montreal, Quebec.

1987 Conferences

Trick, L.M. (1987). Subitizing and counting: The effect of item configuration Poster presented Canadian Psychological Association Annual Conference Vancouver, British Columbia.

Technical Reports

Trick, L. M., Toxopeus, R., Rodd, H., & Nowosielski, R. (2016). Using technology for road safety: Distraction monitoring and real time transition from driving assistance to automation function. Submitted to Ministry of Transportation of Ontario.

Trick, L.M., & Toxopeus, R. (2013). Pedestrian Crosswalk Study: Laboratory Report on Part I (driving simulation data) and Part II (eye tracking data). Submitted to Ontario Traffic Council.

Smiley, A., Smahel, T., Trick, L.M., & Toxopeus, R. (Nov 12, 2010). Highway 406 Roundabout positive guidance analysis. Research contract for Delphi MRC produced for the Ontario Ministry of Transport.