Linda Parker

Neuroscience & Applied Cognitive Science
519-824-4120, 56901
(519) 837 8629

Accepting Graduate Students: 
Accepting New Experiential Learning Students: 

Professor and Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Behavioural Neuroscience

Psychopharmacology, Taste aversion learning, Behavioural Neuroscience, Addiction, Cannabinoids

Our program of research cuts across the traditional boundaries of psychology, pharmacology, and neurobiology to understand processes of learning, emotion, sickness and addiction. The research is leading to a better understanding of basic neural processes involved in the modulation of the pharmacological properties of drugs, with specific applications to controlling nausea and vomiting in humans. We are currently investigating chemicals found naturally in the human body that mimic those in marijuana. These "endogenous cannabinoids," discovered in the 1990s, play a role not only in controlling nausea and vomiting, but also in learning, memory, protection against stroke and cancer, appetite, reward and addiction.


BA, MA California State University, Long Beach

PhD Memorial University of Newfoundland


addiction, animal, behavioral pharmacology, learning and memory, neuroscience of behavior

Selected Publications




Parker, LA (2017) Cannabinoids and the Brain.  MIT Press: Boston.

Journal Articles:

Kolb B, Li Y, Robinson T, Parker LA (2017) THC alters morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens and alters the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity. Synapse, in press.

Pertwee, RG, Rock EM, Guenther K, Limebeer CL, Stevenson LA, Haj C, Smoum R, Parker LA, Mechoulam R (2017) Cannabidiolic acid methyl ester, a stable synthetic analogue of cannabidiolic acid, can produce 5HT1A receptor-mediated suppression of nausea and anxiety in rats.  British J Pharmacology, 175: 100-112..

DeVuono MV, Wills KL, MacPherson DV, Hrelja KM, Parker LA (2017) Effect of footshock stress on place conditioning produced by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, URB597, in Sprague Dawley rats. Psychopharmacology,234, 3229-3240.

Rock EM, Guillermo MS, Limebeer CL, Petrie G, Angelini R, Piomelli D, Parker LA (2017).  Suppression of acute and anticipatory nausea by peripherally restricted FAAH inhibitor in animal models: Role of PPARa and CB1 receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 174: 3837-3847.

Wills, K.L., DeVuono, M., Limebeer, C.L., Vemuri, K, Makriyannis, A, Parker, LA. (2017) CB1 receptor antagonism in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis interferes with affective opioid withdrawal in rats.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 131: 304-311.

Rock, E.M., Limebeer, C.L., Petrie, G.N., Williams, L.A., Mechoulam, R., Parker, L.A. (2017) Effect of prior foot shock stress and D9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, and cannabidiol on anxiety-like responding in the light-dark emergence test in rats. Psychopharmacology, in press. 

Higgins, G.A., Silenieks, L.B., Patrick, A., DeLannoy, I.A.M., Fletcher, P.J., Parker, L.A., MacLusky, N.J., Sullivan, L.C., Chavera, T.A., Berg, K.A. (2017) Studies to examine potential tolerability differences between the 5-HT2C receptor selective agonists lorcaserin and CP-809101. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 17: 1074-1084.

Sticht MA, Rock EM and Parker LA (2015) Endocannabinoid mechanims influencing nausea. In L Parsons and MN Hill (Eds)  International Reviews of Neurobiology: Endocannabinoids, 125: 127-162.

Wills, K.L. and Parker, L.A. (2016) Effect of pharmacological modulation of the endocannabinoid system on opiate withdrawal:  A review of the preclinical animal literature.  Frontiers in Pharmacology, Jun 28;7:187. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00187.

Rock, E.M. and Parker, L.A. (2016) Cannabinoids as treatments for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.  Frontiers in Pharmacology, Jul 26;7:221. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2016.0022. 

Rock, E.M., Connolly, C., Limebeer, C.L., Parker, L.A. (2016) Effect of combined oral doses of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models.  Psychopharmacology, 233: 3353-60.

Rock, E.M., Limebeer, C.M., Sticht, M.A., Parker, L.A. (2016) Role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of acute and anticipatory nausea.  Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 1 (1): 113-121.

Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Puvanenthirarajah N, Niphakis MJ, Cravatt BF, Parker LA (2016) Elevation of 2-AG by monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition in the visceral insular cortex interferes with anticipatory nausea in a rat model, Behavioral Neuroscience, 130, 261-66.

Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Boulet N, Mechoulam R, Parker LA (2016) Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonism reduces Lithium chloride-induced vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea induced conditioned gaping in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology, 786. 94-99.

Parker LA, Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Sticht, MA, Ward J, Turvey G., Benchama O, Rajarshi G, Wood J, Alapafuja SO, Makriyannis A.  (2016) A comparison of a novel MAGL and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitor to suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in rodent models.  Psychopharmacology, 233, 265-75.

Sticht MA, Rock EM, Limebeer CL and Parker LA (2015) Endocannabinoid mechanisms influencing nausea. International Reviews of Neurobiology, 125, 127-162.

Parker LA, Rock EM, Sticht MA, Wills KL, Limebeer CL. (2015) Cannabinoid suppress acute and anticipatory nausea in preclinical rat models of conditioned gaping.  Clinical and Pharmacological Therapeutics, 97: 559-61.

Wills, KL Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Niphakis MJ, Cravatt BF, Parker LA (2016) Double dissociation of monoacylglyceraol lipase inhibition and CB1 antagonism in the basolateral amygdala, central amygdala and the interoceptive insular cortex on the affective properties of acute naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41: 1865-73.

Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Ward JM, Cohen A, Grove K, Nipakis MJ, Cravatt BF, Parker LA. (2015).  Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition interferes with acute nausea by a PPARα mechanism and anticipatory nausea by a CB1 receptor mechanism in a double dissociation.  Psychopharmacology, 232:3841-3848.

Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Parker LA (2015).Effect of combined doses of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea using rat models of conditioned gaping.  Psychopharmacology, 232:445-454..

Sticht MA, Limebeer CL, Abdullah RA, Poklis JL, Ho W, Niphakis, MJ, Cravatt BF, Sharkey KA, Lichtman AH, Parker LA (2015) Endocannabinoid regulation of nausea is mediated by 2-arachidonolyglycerol (2-AG) in the rat visceral insular cortex. Neuropharmacology, 102:92-102.

Rock EM, Parker LA (2015) Synergy between cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the regulation of emesis in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew).  Behavioral Neuroscience, 129:368-70.

Sticht, MA, Limebeer CL, Rafla BR, Parker LA. (2015)  Intra-visceral cortex 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not N-arachidonoylethanolamide suppresses acute nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats.  Neuroscience. 286: 338-44.

Sticht MA, Leach Z, Wilson, JC, Parker LA. (2014) Second-order conditioning of gaping to flavors and contexts in rats.  Learning & Behavior, 286-338-44.,

O’Brien LD, Sticht MA, Mitchnick KA, Limebeer CL, Parker LA, Winters BD.  (2014)  CB1 receptor antagonism in the granular insular cortex or somatosensory area facilitates consolidation of object recognition memory.  Neuroscience Letters, 578: 192-6.

Bruno O, Ricciarelli R, Prickaerts J, Parker LA, Fedele E (2014) PDE4D inhibitors:  a potential strategy for the treatment of memory impairment?  Neuropharmacology, 85, 290-292.

Rock, EM, Limebeer, CL, Navaratnuam R, Sticht MA, Bonner N, Engeland, K, Downey, R, Morris, H, Parker LA.(2014)  A comparison of treatments for anticipatory nausea using a rat model of contextually elicited conditioned gaping.  Psychopharmacology, 231, 3207-15.

Wills, K.L. Vemuri, K, Kalmar A, Lee A., Limebeer, C.L. Makriyannis, A., Parker, LA. (2014) CB1 antagonists interfere with the establishment of a one trial naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal induced place aversion.  Psychopharmacology, 231:4291–4300.

Rock, EM, Limebeer CL, Parker, LA. (2014) Animal model of anticipatory nausea:  with relevance to clinical applications.  Experimental Brain Research, 232, 2511-2534.

Parker, LA, Niphakis R, Downey, R, Limebeer, CL. Rock EM, Sticht, MA, Morris, H, Abdullah R, Lichtman A, Cravatt B. (2014) A new MAGL inhibitor, MJN110, reduces acute and anticipatory nausea in rats and vomiting in Suncus murinus. Psychopharmacology, 232, 583-93.

Levy AM, Limebeer CL, Ferdinand J., Shillingford U, Parker LA, Leri F. (2014) A novel lprocedure for evaluating the reinforcing properties of tastants in laboratory rats: Operant intraoral self-administration.  Journal of Visualized Experiments, doi: 10:3791/50956

Parker LA (2014) Conditioned taste avoidance versus conditioned gaping: Rat models of nausea-induced behavior. European Journal of Pharmacology, 722, 122-133.

Sharkey KA, Darmani NA, Parker LA (2014) Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system.  European Journal of Pharmacology, 722, 134-146.

Mechoulam R, Parker LA (2013) Towards a better cannabis drug.  British Journal of Pharmacology, 170, 1363-4. 

Sticht, M.A., Rock, E.M., Parker, L.A. (2013). 2-arachidonolylglycerol interferes with lithium-induced vomiting in the house musk shrew, Suncus murinus.  Physiology & Behavior, 120, 228-232.

Rock, EM, Parker, LA (2013) Suppression of lithium chloride-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea-induced behaviour) in rats with metoclopramide is enhanced by cannabidiolic acid.  Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 111: 84-89.

 O’Brien LD, Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Bottegoni G, Piomelli D, Parker LA (2013) Prolonged anandamide availability by anandamide transport inhibition attenuates nausea-induced behaviour in rats, and vomiting in shrews (Suncus murinus).  British Journal of Pharmacology, 170, 130-136.

Limebeer CL, Abdullah R, Rock E, Imhof E, Wang K, Lichtman AH, Parker LA (2013) Attenuation of anticipatory nausea in a rat model of contextually-elicited conditioned gaping by enhancement of the endocannabinoid system.  Psychopharmacology, 231:603-612.

Rock EM, Kopstick RL, Limebeer CL, Parker LA (2013) Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid reduces nausea-induced conditioned gaping in rats and vomiting in Suncus murinus. British Journal of Pharmacology, 170, 641-648.

Rock EM, Sticht, M, Duncan M, Stott, C, Parker LA (2013) Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats.  British Journal of Pharmacology, 170, 671-678.

Rock EM, Parker LA (2013) Effect of low doses of cannabidiolic acid and ondansetron on LiCl-induced conditioned gaping (a model of nausea) in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 169, 685-92.

Leri F, Nahas E, Henderson K, Limebeer CL, Parker LA, White NM (2013) Effects of post-training heroin and d-amphetamine administration o acquitision of stimulus-response and stimulus-stimulus learning.  Behavioral Pharmacology, 27, 292-301.

Bolognini D, Rock EM, Cluny NL, Cascio MG, Limebeer CL, Duncan M, Stott CG, Javid FA, Parker LA, Pertwee RG. (2013) Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation. British Journal of Pharmacology, 168, 1456-1470.

Mechoulam R, Parker LA (2013) The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annual Review of Psychology. 64: 21-47.

O’Brien LD, Wills KL, Segsworth B, Dashney B, Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Parker LA.  (2013) Effect of chronic exposure to rimonabant and phytocannabinoids o anxiety-like behaviour and saccharin palatability.  Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 103, 597-602.

Tuerke, KJ, Limebeer CL, Fletcher PJ, Parker LA (2012)  Double dissociation between regulation of conditioned disgust and taste avoidance by serotonin availability at the 5-HT3 receptor in the posterior and anterior insular cortex.  Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 13709-13717.

Tuerke KJ, Winters BD, Parker LA (2012) Ondansetron interferes with unconditioned lying on belly and acquisition of conditioned gaping induced by LiCl as models of nausea-induced behaviours in rats. Physiology & Behavior, 105, 856-860.

Rock EM, Bolognini D, Limebeer CL, Cascio MG, Anavi-Goffer S, Fletcher PJ, Mechoulam R, Pertwee RG, Parker LA (2012) Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Attenuates Vomiting and Nausea by Indirectly Activating  5-HT1A  somatodendritic receptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus. British Journal of Pharmacology, 165, 2620-2634.

Bruno O, Fedele E, Prickaerts J, Parker LA, Canepa E, Brullo C, Cavallero A, Balbi A, Domenicotti C, Bollen E, Erb K, Limebeer CL, Argellati F, Marinair UB, Pronzato MA, Ricciarelli R.  (2011) GEBR-7b, a novel PDE4D inhibitor that improves memory at non-emetic doses. British Journal of Pharmacology, 164, 2054-2063.

Sticht MA, Long JZ, Rock EM, Limebeer CL, Mechoulam R, Cravatt BF, Parker LA (2012)The MAGL inhibitor, JZL184, attenuates LiCl-induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus and 2-AG attenuates LiCl-induced nausea-like behaviour in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 165, 2425-2435.

Rock EM, Goodwin  JM, Limebeer CL, Breuer A,  Pertwee RG, Mechoulam R, Parker LA (2011) Interaction between non-psychotropic Cannabinoids in Marihuana: Effect of Cannabigerol (CBG) on the Anti-Nausea or Anti-Emetic Effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) in rats and shrews. Psychopharmacology, 215, 505-512.

Parker LA, Rock ER, Limebeer CL (2011) Regulation of vomiting and nausea by cannabinoids.  British Journal of Pharmacology, 163, 1411-1422.

McCallum AL, Limebeer CL, Parker LA (2010) Reducing endocannabinoid metabolism with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor, URB597, fails to modify reinstatement of morphine induced conditioned floor preference and naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal induced conditioned floor avoidance. Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behav, 96,496-500.

Limebeer CL, Vemuri V, Bedard H, Lang ST, Ossenkopp KP, Makriyannis A, Parker LA (2010) Peripheral inverse agonism of CB1 receptors potentiates LiCl-induced nausea:  Evidence from the conditioned gaping model in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology, 161, 336-34

Cluny N, Vemuri V, Chambers,A, Limebeer CL, Bedard H, Wood J, Lutz B, Zimmer A, Parker LA, Makriyannis A, Sharkey K. (2010) A novel, peripherally restricted, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist AM6545 reduces food intake and body weight, but does not cause malaise, in rodents. British Journal of Pharmacology, 161, 629-42.

Neath KN, Limebeer CL, Reilly S, Parker LA (2010) Increased liking for a solution is not necessary for the attenuation of neophobia.  Behavioral Neuroscience, 124, 394-404.

López M, Gasalla P, Vega M, Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Tuerke KJ, Bedard H, Parker LA (2010)  Latent inhibition of conditioned disgust reactions in rats.  Learning & Behavior, 38, 177-186.

Manwell LA, Satvat E, Lang ST, Allen CP, Leri F, Parker LA (2009) Effect of manipulations of the endocannabinoid system on extinction of reward and aversion based learning.  Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 94, 154-62.

Cross-Mellor S, Foley KA, Parker LA, Ossenkopp KP (2009) Lipopolysaccharide dose dependently impairs rapid toxin (LiCl)-induced gustatory conditioning:  A taste reactivity examination of the conditioned taste aversion.  Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 23, 204-16

Parker LA, Limebeer CL, Rock EM, Litt DL, Kwiatkowska M, Piomelli D (2009) The FAAH inhibitor URB-597 interferes with cisplatin- and nicotine- induced vomiting in the Suncus murinus (house musk shrew). Physiology and Behavior, 97, 121-124. .

Tuerke KJ, Leri F, Parker LA (2009) Antidepressant-like effects of paroxetine are produced by lower doses than those which produce nausea. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 93, 190-195.

Limebeer CL, Litt DE, Parker LA (2009) Effect of 5-HT3 antagonists and a 5-HT1A agonist on fluoxetine-induced conditioned gaping reactions in rats. Psychopharmacol, 203,763-70.

Rock EM, Benzaquen J, Limebeer CL, Parker LA (2009) Potential of the rat model of conditioned gaping to detect nausea produced by rolipram, a phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor.  Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 91, 537-541.

Book Chapters:

Rock EM and Parker LA (2015) The role of 5-HT1A receptor and nausea and vomiting relief by cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG).  In Preedy V (Ed)  Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies, Elsevier Press.

Parker, L.A. (2014) Conditioned taste aversion learning: relationship to nausea and conditioned disgust.  In McSweeney, F. (Ed) Handbook of Operant and Classical Conditioning, Wiley Press.

Rock EM, Sticht MA, Parker LA (2014) Effect of phytocannabinoids on nausea and vomiting.  In: RJ Pertwee (Ed) Handbook of Cannabis, Oxford University Press.

Parker LA, Limebeer CL, Rana SA (2009) Conditioned disgust, but not conditioned taste avoidance, may reflect conditioned nausea in rats. In Reilly, S and Schachtman, T.R. (Eds) Conditioned Taste Aversions: Behavioral and Neural Processes. Oxford University Press: N..Y

Parker LA, Limebeer CL (2009)  Cannabinoids in the management of nausea and vomiting.  In: Kofalvi, A. (Ed) Cannabinoids and the brain. Springer-Verlag Press: NY.

Linda Parker is currently funded by the Natural Sciences Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) with both a Discovery Grant and a Collaborative Research and Development Grant and by the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) with a Project Grant.  She currently serves on the NSERC Grant Selection Committee for Biological Systems and Functions, the CIHR Grant Selection Panel BSC, the College of Reviewers for Canada Research Chairs, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and Ontario Centres of Excellence.  She is president of the Canadian Constortium for Investigation of Cannabinoids. She was recently awarded the 2016 "Lifetime Achievement Award" from the International Cannabinoid Research Society in Bukovina, Poland. She will give the Nick Mackintosh Memorial Lecture at the Associative Learning Symposium (XXI) in Gregyngog, Wales in March 2018.